Action: Release translocated mammals into fenced areas
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- Twenty-four studies evaluated the effects of releasing translocated mammals into fenced areas. Nine studies were in Australia, six studies were in South Africa, two studies were in the USA and one study was in each of India, China, Spain, Hungary, Namibia and South Africa and France.
COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES)
POPULATION RESPONSE (22 STUDIES)
- Abundance (5 studies): Five studies (one replicated) in the USA, Australia and South Africa found that following translocation into fenced areas, 18 African elephant populations, tule elk, brushtail possum and elk and bison increased in number and following eradiation of invasive species a population of translocated and released captive-bred burrowing bettongs increased. A replicated, controlled study in Spain found that the abundance of translocated European rabbits was higher in areas fenced to exclude predators than unfenced areas.
- Reproductive success (7 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies in France and Spain found that after translocation, reproductive success of common hamsters and European rabbits was higher inside than outside fenced areas or warrens. Four studies (one replicated, controlled) in China and South Africa found that following translocation into a fenced area, Père David's deer, lions, translocated and captive-bred African wild dogs and one of two groups of Cape buffalo reproduced. A study in Australia found that four of five mammal populations released into a predator-free enclosure and one population released into a predator-reduced enclosure reproduced, whereas two populations released into an unfenced area with ongoing predator management did not survive to breed.
- Survival (13 studies): Two replicated, controlled studies in Spain and France found that after translocation, survival rates of common hamsters and European rabbits were higher inside than outside fenced areas or warrens. A study in Australia found that four of five mammal populations released into a predator-free enclosure and one population released into a predator-reduced enclosure survived, whereas two populations released into an unfenced area with ongoing predator management did not persist. Five studies in India, China, South Africa, Namibia and South Africa and Australia found that following translocation into fenced areas, most black rhinoceroses and greater Indian rhinoceroses, Père David's deer, most oribi and offspring of translocated golden bandicoots survived for between one and 10 years. Two studies in Australia found that only two of five translocated numbats survived over seven months and western barred bandicoots did not persist. A study in South Africa found that translocated and captive-bred African wild dogs released into fenced reserves in family groups had high survival rates. A study in Australia found that following release into fenced areas, a translocated population of red-tailed phascogales survived longer than a released captive-bred population. A replicated, controlled study in South Africa found that after translocation to a fenced reserve with holding pens, survival of released lions was higher than that of resident lions.
- Condition (3 studies): A replicated, before-and-after study in Australia found that eastern bettongs translocated into fenced predator proof enclosures increased in body weight post-release, with and without supplementary food. A replicated study in South Africa found that following translocation into fenced reserves, stress hormone levels of African elephants declined over time. A study in Australia found that golden bandicoots descended from a population translocated into a fenced area free from non-native predators, maintained genetic diversity relative to the founder and source populations.
BEHAVIOUR (2 STUDIES)
- Use (2 studies): A site comparison study in Australia found that following translocation into a predator-free fenced area, woylies developed home ranges similar in size to those of an established population outside the enclosure. A study in Hungary found that one fifth of translocated European ground squirrels released into a fenced area with artificial burrows remained in the area after release.
Mammals that are being translocated to a new location may be released into fenced areas. This may be done to keep them within a certain area (e.g. a game reserve), or to keep predators or other problem species out of an area to increase their chances of survival. Here fenced areas refer to those that are large enough to cover the home ranges of the target species. Studies that use smaller holding or pre-release pens before releasing translocated mammals into the wild are covered in Use holding pens at release site prior to release of translocated mammals.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A study in 1970–1973 in two grassland and forest sites in South Dakota, USA (Cole 1974) found that following translocation into fenced areas, elk Cervus canadensis and bison Bison bison increased in numbers. Three years after the onset of translocations, there were more elk (214) and bison (109) than were released over that time (elk: 165; bison: 95). Additionally, over the same period, 55 elk and 22 bison were harvested by hunters. The study was conducted in two 4,000-ha game ranges. Both game ranges were enclosed by woven wire fences, approximately 2 m high. In 1970–1973, one hundred and sixty-five elk and 95 bison (origin not stated) were released across both sites (the number of individuals stocked into each game range is not provided). Mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, whitetail deer Odocoileus virginianus and pronghorn Antilocapra americana occurred naturally within the game ranges and were managed for game hunting.
A study in 1984–1986 in a national park in Uttar Pradesh, India (Sale & Singh 1987) found that following translocation into a fenced reserve, most greater Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis survived over 20 months after release. Seven of eight translocated rhinoceroses were still alive at least 20 months after release into a fenced reserve, and three of these animals had survived for over 31 months. One elderly female died three months after release, due to a paralysed limb. In March 1984, six rhinoceroses were captured in Assam. They were housed in a holding pen for 9–19 days (during which one individual escaped). The remaining five were transported to Dudhwa National Park, where one elderly female died before release (following abortion of a dead foetus) and four were released in April–May 1984. Four other animals captured in late March 1985 in Sauraha (Nepal) were released to Dudhwa National Park one week after capture. Survival data were collated up to December 1986.
A study in 1978–1998 in a grassland reserve in California, USA (Adess 1998) found that numbers of tule elk Cervus canadensis nannodes translocated to a fenced reserve increased more than 50-fold over 20 years. In 1998, a translocated population of Tule elk grew to more than 500 individuals from the 10 individuals originally translocated 20 years earlier. In 1978, ten tule elk were translocated to a fenced reserve of approximately 1,000 ha. No monitoring details are provided.
A study in 1993-1997 in a grassland reserve in Hubei province, China (Jiang et al. 2000) found that translocated Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus released into a fenced area survived at least two years and bred. Père David's deer survived at least two years after being translocated and reproduced in the second year following relocation (numbers not provided). Deer were released in 1993 (30 individuals), 1994 (34 individuals) and 1995 (74 individuals) into a 16 km2 paddock. The origin of some of the deer is unclear, but most were wild-born offspring from captive-bred animals that had been released into another reserve in China.
A study in 1993–1999 on an arid peninsula in Western Australia, Australia (Short & Turner 2000) found that following release into a fenced area where invasive species had been eradicated, a population of burrowing bettongs Bettongia lesueur increased. In 1999, six years after initial releases, the population was estimated at 263–301 bettongs, with 340 individuals born between 1995 and 1999. The population died out due to fox incursion in 1994, but was re-established with further releases. In 1990, a 1.6-m tall wire mesh fence (with an external overhang, an apron to prevent burrowing and two electrified wires) was erected to enclose a 12-km2 peninsular, within which foxes Vulpes vulpes and cats Felis catus were eliminated by poisoning in 1991 and 1995, respectively. Outside the fence foxes were controlled by biannual aerial baiting with meat containing 1080 toxin, distributed at 10 baits/km2 over 200 km2. From October 1993, an additional 200 baits/month were distributed along the fence and roads across the study area. Cats were controlled by trapping and poisoning in a 100 km2 buffer zone. In May 1992 and September 1993, twenty-two wild-caught bettongs were transferred to an 8-ha in-situ captive-breeding pen. In September 1993 and October 1995, twenty wild-caught bettongs were translocated to range freely in the reserve. From 1993–1998, one hundred and fourteen captive-bred bettongs were released. Artificial warrens and supplementary food and water were provided in 1993, but not for later releases. Eighty released bettongs were radio-tagged. From 1991–1995, European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus were controlled within the fenced area using 1080 ‘one shot’ oats. Bettongs were monitored every three months using cage traps set over two consecutive nights, at both 100-m intervals along approximately 40 km of track, and at warrens used by radio-collared individuals.
A study in 2000–2003 in a mixed karoo grassland reserve in Northern Cape Province, South Africa (Venter 2004) found that after translocated Cape buffalo Syncerus caffer were released into a fenced reserve in groups (after being held in a holding pen) one group scattered and escaped the reserve while the other formed a single herd and stayed in the reserve and bred. One month after release, a group of four buffalo had split into two solitary animals and a pair formed by one male and one female. One of the solitary animals was not seen again, the second solitary male animal was located two years after release on a neighbouring farm and released into the second group of translocated animals in May 2003. The pair escaped the reserve three times in 13 months. After the third escape, the male was moved to a different reserve and a new male introduced to form a herd with the remaining female. A second group of 10 translocated animals formed a single herd (along with the two remaining animals from the previous introduction) and over 10 months no animals died or escaped. A year after the introduction five calves were born. Four subadult buffalo (2 male, 2 female) were placed in a holding pen in July 2000 and released in August into a fenced 12,000-ha reserve. A second group of seven adult and three subadult animals (4 male, 6 female) was placed into a holding pen in August 2002 and released into a 200 ha area in September before being completely released in October 2002. Both groups were monitored weekly with telemetry until October 2003.
A replicated study in 1990–2001 in 18 savannah sites in South Africa (Slotow et al. 2005) found that at least five years following translocation into fenced reserves, the population size of African elephants Loxodonta africana increased over time. The population size of translocated elephants increased at an average annual rate of 8.3%. Annual growth across recipient sites ranged from 1.7% to 16.5%. In 1990–1999, elephants were translocated into 18 fenced reserves. The number of animals translocated into each reserve ranged between 18 and 227. Translocation details and the data on numbers of animals present in 2001 were obtained through surveys of reserve owners or managers. All translocated elephants were wild-born, free-ranging animals.
A study in 1995–2005 in 12 dry savanna and temperate grassland sites in South Africa (Gusset et al. 2008) found that translocated and captive-bred African wild dogs Lycaon pictus released into fenced reserves in family groups had high survival rates and bred successfully. Eighty-five percent of released animals and their wild-born offspring survived the first six months after release/birth, Released animals which survived their first year had a high survival rate 12–18 months (91%) and 18–24 months (92%) after release. Additionally, groups which had more time to socialise in holding pens prior to release had higher survival rates (data presented as statistical models). Between 1995 and 2005, one hundred and twenty-seven wild dogs (79 wild-caught, 16 captive-bred, 16 wild-caught but captive-raised, 16 “mixed” pups) were translocated over 18 release events into 12 sites in five provinces of South Africa. Animals were monitored for 24 months after release, and the 129 pups which they produced after release were monitored up to 12 months of age. Forty characteristics of the individual animals, release sites and methods of release were recorded, and their impact on post-release survival was tested.
A replicated, controlled study in 2002–2003 in three grassland and shrubland sites in south-west Spain (Rouco et al. 2008) found that the survival of translocated rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus was similar between fenced and unfenced areas but that abundance was higher in areas fenced to exclude predators. Three months after translocation, rabbit survival did not differ significantly between fenced and unfenced plots (0.57 vs 0.4). However, four months after translocation the relative abundance of rabbits was higher in fenced than in unfenced plots (data presented as log abundance). Two fenced (1 m below and 2.5 m above ground with an electric wire on top) and two unfenced translocation areas (4 ha, 18 artificial warrens each) were established in Los Melonares, Sierra Norte of Seville Natural Park. A total of 724 wild rabbits were released in similar numbers into each area. Rabbit survival was based on 45 radio-collared rabbits (19 in fenced and 26 in unfenced areas). Abundance was estimated four months after translocation through pellet counts in 10 circular plots (18 cm diameter).
A replicated, controlled study in 1999–2004 in three mixed savanna and woodland sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Trinkel et al. 2008) found that after translocation to a fenced reserve with holding pens, survival of released lions Panthera leo was higher than that of resident lions, and translocated animals reproduced successfully. No statistical tests were performed. After five years, a higher proportion of translocated animals survived (eight of 16 animals, 50%) than of resident animals (20 of 84 animals, 24%). Seven translocated females reproduced successfully. Between August 1999 and January 2001, sixteen lions were translocated to an enclosed reserve to improve genetic diversity. They were held at release sites in 0.5–1-ha pens for 4–6 weeks before release. Nine translocated lions were fitted with radio-collars. From August 1999 to December 2004, translocated animals were located at least every 10 days. Resident lions were also tracked at least every 10 days.
A study in 2005–2006 of a savanna reserve in South Australia, Australia (Bester et al. 2009) found that following translocation and release into a fenced area, only two of five translocated numbats Myrmecobius fasciatus remained alive after seven months. One male was predated by a raptor 47 days after release. Two females were each carrying young four months after release, but both died three months later, probably due to raptor predation. Two males remained alive for at least 18 months after release. Five translocated numbats (three males and two females) were released in November 2005 into a 14-km2 fenced area from which red foxes Vulpes vulpes and feral cats Felis catus were excluded. All animals were released on the day of capture or the following day. Animals were radio-tracked daily for three months and weekly for six further months. Methods for monitoring after that time are not detailed.
A study in 2004–2006 in a grassland reserve in KwaZulu‐Natal, South Africa (Grey-Ross et al. 2009) found that following translocation into a fenced reserve, most oribi Ourebia ourebi survived at least one year after release. Fourteen of 15 (93%) oribi translocated into a fenced reserve survived for at least one year post-release. The other oribi (a male) died eight months after release but was old (based on horn length and wear). Four translocated females were pregnant and were observed with calves within three months of release (number not reported). Fifteen wild oribi from three populations (11 females, four males) were translocated into a 2,000-ha private game reserve in November 2004. The reserve was surrounded by a 2.1-m-high electric fence and was patrolled daily by armed guards. The grassland was managed for oribi by mowing and burning. All of the 15 oribi were ear-tagged and radio-collared. In 2005–2006, individuals were radio-tracked weekly for two months and monthly thereafter for one year.
A study in 2000 in a grassland site in central Hungary (Gedeon et al. 2011) found that one fifth of translocated European ground squirrels Spermophilus citellus released into a fenced area with artificial burrows remained in the area after release. From four to 10 days after release, 25 out of 117 ground squirrels were recaptured. The highest recapture rate came from the group released into plugged burrows in the morning (15 out of 30). The fence was designed to exclude predators from the site. From 22–24 April 2000, 117 wild-caught European ground squirrels were translocated to a fenced 40-ha protected grassland. Four 40 × 40-m grid cells were established, each containing vertical, artificial burrows (50 cm long, 4.5 cm diameter) spaced 4.5 m apart. Sixty animals were released into burrows plugged with wood caps (from which they could only exit by digging out) across two grid cells and 57 into unplugged artificial burrows in the other two grid cells. One individual was released/burrow. Approximately half the squirrels were released in the afternoon on the day of capture. Animals to be released in the morning were kept in individual wire cages (10 × 10 × 40 cm) for one night and provided with fresh apple slices prior to release. From 28 April–2 May, squirrels were recaptured with snares to record retention.
A study in 1981–2005 in reserves across Namibia and South Africa (Linklater et al. 2011) found that 89% of translocated black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis released into fenced reserves survived over one year and 36% at least 10 years post-release. Seventy-four of 682 translocated black rhinoceroses died during the first year post-release. First-year post-release mortality was higher when animals were released into reserves occupied by other rhinoceroses (restocking, 13.4% mortality of 268 animals) than releases into new reserves (reintroduction, 7.9% mortality of 414 animals). At least 243 rhinoceroses survived at least 10 years after release. For restocking events, first-year post-release mortality was higher in rhinoceroses less than two years old (59%) than in all other age classes (9–20%), but there was no difference for reintroductions. Data on 89 reintroduction and 102 restocking events of black rhinoceroses into 81 reserves from 1981–2005 were compiled from the Namibia and South Africa Rhino Management Group reports. Animals were released in groups from 1 to 30 individuals, and reserves received up to five releases. Translocations were considered as different if the releases of individuals to the same reserve were more than 1 month apart. Deaths were detected by reserve staff. The location of reserves included in the study is not provided.
A study in 1998-2010 in a desert site in South Australia (Moseby et al. 2011) found that four of five mammal populations released into a predator-free enclosure and one population released into a predator-reduced enclosure survived, increased their distribution and produced a second generation, whereas two populations released into an unfenced area with ongoing predator management did not persist. After release into a fenced enclosure where red foxes Vulpes vulpes, cats Felis catus and rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus had been eradicated, greater stick-nest rats Leporillus conditor, burrowing bettongs Bettongia lesueur, western barred bandicoots Perameles bougainville and greater bilbies Macrotis lagotis were detected for eight years, increased their distribution within five years and produced a second generation within two years. Numbats Myrmecobius fasciatus were only detected for three years and did not produce a second generation. Burrowing bettongs released into a fenced enclosure with cats and rabbits but no foxes survived and increased their distribution over at least three years and produced a second generation within two years. Greater bilbies and burrowing bettongs released into an unfenced area with some predator management did not survive to produce a second generation or increase their distribution. In 1998–2005, five numbats, 106 greater stick-nest rats (6 captive-bred individuals), 30 burrowing bettongs, 12 western barred bandicoots and nine greater bilbies (all captive-bred) were released into a 14-km2 invasive-species-free fenced area. Rabbits, cats and foxes were eradicated within the fenced area in 1999. All western barred bandicoots and greater bilbies, and some greater stick-nest rats (8 individuals) and burrowing bettongs (10 individuals) were put into a 10-ha holding pen before full release after a few months. All other animals were released directly into the larger fenced area. In 2004-2008, thirty-two greater bilbies and 15 burrowing bettongs were translocated to an unfenced area (200 km2) where invasive predators (cats and foxes) were managed with lethal controls and dingoes Canis lupus dingo were excluded by a fence on one side. In 2008, sixty-six burrowing bettongs were translocated to a 26 km2 fenced area which contained small cat and rabbit populations as a result of previous eradication attempts. Between 2000 and 2010, animals were monitored using track counts, burrow monitoring and radio-tracking.
A replicated study in 2000–2006 in five savannah reserves in South Africa (Jachowski et al. 2013) found that following translocation into fenced reserves, stress hormone levels of African elephants Loxodonta africana declined with time since release. Average levels of stress hormones were respectively 10% and 40% lower in reserves where elephants had been released 10 and 24 years before sampling than in a reserve where elephants had been released one year before sampling. The concentrations of stress hormones levels (fecal glucocorticoid metabolites) were quantified from 1,567 fecal samples collected in 2000–2006 from elephants reintroduced to five fenced reserves. Translocated elephants had been released in 1981 in two of the reserves, in 1992 in two other reserves and in 2000 in one reserve. Samples were collected from all family groups on nearly consecutive days and efforts were made not to collect multiple samples from the same individual.
A replicated, controlled study in 2010–2011 in 10 agricultural plots in Alsace, France (Villemey et al. 2013) found that survival rates and reproductive success of translocated common hamsters Cricetus cricetus were higher inside than outside fenced areas. Average reproductive success and weekly survival rates of translocated hamsters were higher inside (reproductive success: 0.44 litters/female; weekly survival: 89%) than outside fenced areas (reproductive success: 0.00 litters/female; weekly survival: 27%). Additionally, inside fenced areas, monthly survival was higher in wheat plots (harvested and unharvested wheat plots combined) than in alfalfa plots (61% vs 35%). The study was conducted in a 300-ha agricultural landscape, comprising small fields (ca. 0.75 ha) of multiple crops. In May 2010, a total of 14 hamsters were released in two batches into fenced plots and an equal number was released in two unfenced plots. Additionally, in May 2011, hamsters were released into two fenced plots each of harvested wheat (total 14 hamsters), unharvested wheat (total 14 hamsters) and mown alfalfa (total 14 hamsters). Animals were radio-tagged and released into artificial burrows. Fenced plots were surrounded by electrified wires located 10–100 cm above ground. Animals were located every 2–4 days in May–September by radio-tracking.
A replicated, controlled study in 2004–2006 in 16 grassland sites in Andalusia, Spain (D'Amico et al. 2014) found that European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus bred in artificial warrens and that reproductive success was higher in fenced than in unfenced warrens. One hundred and twenty-one rabbit kittens were detected during 222 artificial warren observations (0.54/observation). More kittens were detected in fenced than in unfenced artificial warrens (data presented as model results). The study was conducted in sixteen 5-ha sites across two areas of Doñana National Park. Five artificial warrens in each site each consisted of a two-floor wooden structure (15 × 3 × 1 m) with 30 entrances, covered with a metallic net, ground cloth and sand. In eight sites, artificial warrens were fenced to deter terrestrial predators, with a 2-m tall metallic net that extended 0.5 m underground. In eight sites, warrens were not fenced. In each site, 5–19 rabbits/ha were released in October or November of 2004 or 2005. Rabbit reproductive success was surveyed the following year, between February and August, through observations of kittens in focal artificial warrens, using a spotting-scope.
A study in 2010–2013 at a grassland and woodland site in Western Australia, Australia (Ottewell et al. 2014) found that wild-born golden bandicoots Isoodon auratus, descended from a translocated population which had been released into a fenced area free from non-native predators, maintained genetic diversity relative to the founder and source populations and persisted for three years. For four measures of genetic diversity (allelic richness, the number of effective alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity) there were no significant differences between descendants from translocated animals, founder animals that were translocated or source populations (see paper for details). The population size was estimated at 249 bandicoots in 2013. One hundred and sixty bandicoots were trapped on Barrow Island, which had a large population, in February 2010. They were released into a 1,100-ha enclosure free from introduced predators within 24 h of capture. Genetic material was sampled by ear punch biopsy from 57 founders in 2010 and from 67 wild-born progeny trapped in 2010–2012.
A study in 2010–2013 in a forest and shrubland reserve in Western Australia, Australia (Short & Hide 2014) found that following translocation into a predator-resistant fenced area, brushtail possums Trichosurus vulpecula numbers increased over the three years following release. Of five animals released in a formal translocation program, only one, a female, survived >8 months. This animal was still alive after three years. However, including survivors and progeny from four possums informally released two year earlier, there were 19 possums known to be alive three years after formal translocations. Twenty further possums were recorded over this time, of which most are presumed to have subsequently died or left the sanctuary area. Four possums caught on nearby farms were informally released within a 427-ha predator-fenced sanctuary in 2008. Five possums were translocated and released at the same site in winter 2010. Possums were monitored by radio-tracking and by 3–4 live-trapping surveys/year in 2010–2013.
A study in 2006–2015 in two forest and shrubland sites in Western Australia and Northern Territory, Australia (Short & Hide 2015) found that following release into fenced areas, a translocated population of red-tailed phascogales Phascogale calura survived for more than five years, but a captive-bred population survived for less than a year. A population of phascogales established from wild-caught animals survived longer (>5 years) than a population established from captive-bred animals (that had been kept in pre-release pens and given supplementary food; < 1 year). Authors suggest that the unsuccessful site may also have had a shortage of tree hollows for nesting. In July 2006 and January–February 2007, thirty-two captive-bred phascogales were released into a 26-ha fenced reserve (outside which feral cats Felis catus were abundant) after spending either 10 days or over four months in a pre-release pen (3×6×2 or 4.5×3×2.2 m). Eleven nest boxes were provided within 150m of the release pen, and supplementary food was provided for one week after release. In April 2009 and June 2010, twenty-seven wild-caught phascogales were released into a 430-ha fenced reserve with 22 nest boxes, but with no pre-release pen or supplementary food. From November 2010–January 2013, thirteen additional boxes were installed inside (four) and outside (nine) the fenced area at this site. Phascogales were monitored after each release using radio-collaring or Elliott live traps, and through periodic monitoring of the nest boxes.
A site comparison study in 2010–2011 of forest at two sites in Western Australia, Australia (Yeatman & Wayne 2015) found that following translocation into a predator-free, enclosed sanctuary, woylies Bettongia penicillata developed home ranges similar in size to those of an established population outside the enclosure. Home ranges did not differ significantly in size between woylies inside the enclosure (28–115 ha) and those in a population outside the enclosure (42–141 ha). The 423-ha sanctuary area was enclosed by a 2-m-high fence in September 2010. This was followed by an intensive cat Felis catus and fox Vulpes vulpes eradication programme. In December 2010, forty-one woylies sourced from nearby populations were released inside the fence. Eight woylies inside the fence (four male, four female) and seven from an established population 17 km to the north (five male, two female), were monitored by radio-tracking at night in March–April 2011.
A replicated, before-and-after study in 2011–2013 in two forest and grassland sites in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia (Portas et al. 2016) found that eastern bettongs Bettongia gaimardi translocated into fenced predator proof enclosures increased in body weight post-release, with and without supplementary food. Between twelve and 24 months post-release, the average body weight of translocated eastern bettongs (1.8 kg) increased compared to before release (1.7 kg). There was no difference in weight between bettongs fed supplementary food and those without (data not provided). In 2011−2012, sixty adult eastern bettongs were translocated from Tasmania to two predator-free fenced reserves. In one reserve bettongs (5 males, 7 females) received supplementary food at least weekly and were placed in 2.6-9.4 ha enclosures, whereas in a second reserve bettongs (8 males, 10 females) received no supplementary food and were not managed in enclosures. Supplementary food included fresh locally available produce and commercial pellets. Body weight was assessed before release and 12–24 months after release (May–November 2013). Bettongs were also monitored by radio-telemetry or camera traps and live-trapping every 3 months.
A study in 1995–2010 in a shrubland-dominated peninsula in Western Australia, Australia (Short 2016) found that a translocated population of western barred bandicoots Perameles bougainville released inside a predator-resistant fence did not persist. Nine years after translocations into a fenced area commenced, bandicoot numbers increased to 467, from 82 founders. However, then declined to four individuals eight months later and just one animal was recorded over the following three years. Fourteen bandicoots were translocated in 1995–1996 from an offshore island to a 17-ha enclosure, within a 1,200-ha section of a mainland peninsula, fenced to exclude foxes and feral cats. In 1997–2004, eighty-two bandicoots were released from the enclosure to the fenced peninsula. Bandicoots were monitored with cage traps at 100-m intervals over two nights during 47 trapping sessions between August 1995 and September 2010. The fence was built in 1989 and was rebuilt and repaired several times. However, it was considered to be an ineffective barrier to red foxes Vulpes vulpes and cats Felis catus, which were controlled inside the fenced area by poisoning, trapping and shooting.
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