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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Successful reintroduction of tule elk Cervus elaphus nannodes to grass scrubland at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA

Published source details

Adess N. (1998) Tule elk; return of a species. National Park Service Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Prohibit or restrict hunting of a species Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A before-and-after study in 1971–1998 in California, USA (Adess 1998) found that numbers of tule elk Cervus canadensis nannodes increased after hunting was prohibited. The tule elk population grew from approximately 500 individuals in 1971 when it received official protection against hunting, to 2,000 individuals in 1989 and >3,000 individuals in 1998. Tule elk became officially protected in 1971. The bill prohibited hunting until the population reached 2,000 individuals. No monitoring or habitat details are provided. Other management interventions (not detailed) were carried out by California Department of Fish and Game during the length of the study.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Release translocated mammals into fenced areas Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1978–1998 in a grassland reserve in California, USA (Adess 1998) found that numbers of tule elk Cervus canadensis nannodes translocated to a fenced reserve increased more than 50-fold over 20 years. In 1998, a translocated population of Tule elk grew to more than 500 individuals from the 10 individuals originally translocated 20 years earlier. In 1978, ten tule elk were translocated to a fenced reserve of approximately 1,000 ha. No monitoring details are provided.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)