Action: Spray water to deter birds from ponds
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A replicated study from Sweden found that a rotating water spray deterred birds from fish ponds, but that birds often became used to the spray.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A replicated study from Älvkarleby municipality, Sweden (Svensson 1976), found that a rotator device for protecting small, circular fish ponds from gulls and terns deterred birds. Increased water pressure and intermittent spraying (instead of continuous) increased effectiveness but birds often became accustomed to the spray.