Individual study: A rotating water spray deters gulls and terns from circular fish ponds Ã„lvkarleby municipality, Uppsala, Sweden
Svensson K.M. (1976) Rotator for protecting circular fish ponds against predatory birds. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 38, 152-154
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Spray water to deter birds from ponds
A replicated study from Älvkarleby municipality, Sweden (Svensson 1976), found that a rotator device for protecting small, circular fish ponds from gulls and terns deterred birds. Increased water pressure and intermittent spraying (instead of continuous) increased effectiveness but birds often became accustomed to the spray.