Provide educational or other training programmes about the marine environment to improve behaviours towards marine invertebrates
Overall effectiveness category Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)
Number of studies: 1
Background information and definitions
Whether through school curricula, education programmes, training courses, workshops, or outreach events, providing education and training programmes can help raise awareness about marine conservation issues and potentially induce a behavioural change (Colleton et al. 2016; Kwan et al. 2017; Leisher et al. 2012). These programmes may be about the marine environment in general or about specific ecosystems, species, or groups of species, their biodiversity, conservation, and management.
Evidence for related interventioms is summarised under “Education and awareness – Organise educational marine wildlife tours to improve behaviours towards marine invertebrates”.
Colleton N., Lakshman V., Flood K., Birnbaum M., Mcmillan K. & Lin A. (2016) Concepts and practice in the emerging use of games for marine education and conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 26, 213–224.
Kwan B.K., Cheung J.H., Law A.C., Cheung S.G. & Shin P.K. (2017) Conservation education program for threatened Asian horseshoe crabs: a step towards reducing community apathy to environmental conservation. Journal for Nature Conservation, 35, 53–65.
Leisher C., Mangubhai S., Hess S., Widodo H., Soekirman T., Tjoe S., Wawiyai S., Larsen S.N., Rumetna L., Halim A. & Sanjayan M. (2012) Measuring the benefits and costs of community education and outreach in marine protected areas. Marine Policy, 36, 1005–1011.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A replicated, before-and-after study in 2009–2016 of 96 secondary schools in Hong Kong (Kwan et al. 2017) found that a 14-month-long conservation education programme improved students’ behaviour towards Asian horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus conservation. The programme increased students’ behaviour towards horseshoe crab conservation by 21%. This included a 43% increase in students promoting horseshoe crab conservation to relatives and friends, a 5% increase in students themselves promoting horseshoe crab conservation, and a 15% increase in their willingness-to-pay for conserving Asian horseshoe crabs. The programme also improved their general biology and ecology knowledge of Asian horseshoe crabs by 26% and their perception and awareness towards horseshoe crab conservation by 17%. Between 2009 and 2016, the “Juvenile Horseshoe Crab Rearing Program” took place in 96 schools. Teams of students reared juvenile crabs for 14 months before releasing them into nursery grounds. Before the start and after the end of each programme, students were asked to respond to a set questionnaire regarding their behaviour towards horseshoe crab conservation, knowledge of horseshoe crab biology/ecology and their perception and awareness of horseshoe crab conservation. A total of 1,391 students responded.Study and other actions tested