Establish handling and release procedures for accidentally captured or entangled (‘bycatch’) reptiles

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
    not assessed
  • Certainty
    not assessed
  • Harms
    not assessed

Study locations

Key messages

  • One study evaluated the effects on reptiles of establishing handling and release procedures for accidentally captured or entangled reptiles. This study was in Canada.



  • Condition (1 study): One replicated, controlled study in Canada in a captive setting found that recovery of painted turtles after a long period of being held underwater was similar when turtles recovered out of the water or in the water.



About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A replicated, controlled study in 2011 in a laboratory in Ontario, Canada (LeDain et al. 2013) found that short-term recovery of painted turtles Chrysemys picta from a lack of oxygen was similar out of water and in water. Recovery from a lack of oxygen was similar for turtles that recovered out of water and those that recovered in water as measured by blood lactate (out of water: 18 mmol/l; in water: 18 mmol/l) and pH (out of water: 7.6; in water: 7.7). Out of water recovery resulted in lower reflex impairment compared to immediately after submergence, whereas in water recovery resulted in similar impairment to both out of water recovery and immediately after submergence (reported as impairment index). Wild-caught male turtles were individually submerged in tanks for 12 hours (held with a cage). Blood lactate, blood pH and reflex response were measured immediately after submergence (6 turtles); after 1 h recovery out of water (7 turtles); after 1 h recovery in water (7 turtles). Reflex response included measuring orientation, startle response, escape response and physical response (see paper for details).

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Sainsbury K.A., Morgan W.H., Watson M., Rotem G., Bouskila A., Smith R.K. & Sutherland W.J. (2021) Reptile Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for reptiles. Conservation Evidence Series Synopsis. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

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Reptile Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Reptile Conservation
Reptile Conservation

Reptile Conservation - Published 2021

Reptile synopsis

What Works 2021 cover

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