Use campaigns and public information to improve behaviour towards mammals and reduce threats

How is the evidence assessed?
  • Effectiveness
  • Certainty
  • Harms

Study locations

Key messages

  • Two studies evaluated the effects of using campaigns and public information to improve behaviour towards mammals and reduce threats. One study was in the USA and one was in Lao People's Democratic Republic.





About key messages

Key messages provide a descriptive index to studies we have found that test this intervention.

Studies are not directly comparable or of equal value. When making decisions based on this evidence, you should consider factors such as study size, study design, reported metrics and relevance of the study to your situation, rather than simply counting the number of studies that support a particular interpretation.

Supporting evidence from individual studies

  1. A randomized, replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in 2007 in a residential area in Colorado, USA (Baruch-Mordo et al. 2011) found that displaying education signs about the danger of garbage to black bears Ursus americanus did not reduce the percentage of garbage containers that were not wildlife-resistant or wildlife-proof. The overall proportion of households using garbage containers that were not wildlife-resistant or wildlife-proof declined during the study. However, where signage was used, the trend in households not using wildlife-resistant garbage containers (after: 0–31%; before: 11–52%) did not differ from where signage was not used (after: 7–27%; before: 9–45%). Dumpsters were surveyed at 68 communal housing complexes. Thirty-four were randomly selected for placement of signs on dumpsters, warning of dangers of unsecured garbage to bears. Similarly, 42 construction sites were surveyed, with signage used at 22 of these. Dumpsters were surveyed in July –September 2007, for three weeks before and three weeks after installing signage. Violations were use of unsecured containers, unsecure dumpster storage outside kerbside collection times, garbage outside dumpsters and, on building sites, food waste in open dumpsters.

    Study and other actions tested
  2. A controlled, before-and-after study in 2009–2010 in 57 villages in and around a protected area in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Saypanya et al. 2013) found that a social marketing campaign to promote a newly created telephone hotline increased reporting of illegal hunting. Villagers exposed to the social marketing campaign were significantly more likely to report illegal hunting after the campaign. The reporting rate of the villages not exposed to the campaign did not change significantly (data not reported). In 2009, a telephone hotline was set up for villagers to report illegal hunting. In 36 villages, a social marketing campaign was used to promote the hotline. Twenty-one similar villages did not receive the campaign. Surveys of both groups were conducted before and after the social marketing campaign took place.

    Study and other actions tested
Please cite as:

Littlewood, N.A., Rocha, R., Smith, R.K., Martin, P.A., Lockhart, S.L., Schoonover, R.F., Wilman, E., Bladon, A.J., Sainsbury, K.A., Pimm S. and Sutherland, W.J. (2020) Terrestrial Mammal Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions for terrestrial mammals excluding bats and primates. Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Where has this evidence come from?

List of journals searched by synopsis

All the journals searched for all synopses

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

This Action forms part of the Action Synopsis:

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation - Published 2020

Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

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