Use 'warm white' rather than 'cool' LED lights
Overall effectiveness category No evidence found (no assessment)
Number of studies: 0
Background information and definitions
LEDs (light-emitting diodes) are increasingly being used in the lighting industry. It has been suggested that ‘warm white’ LED lights emitting little or no ultraviolet component may have less of an impact on bats than ‘cool’ lights emitting blue and ultraviolet wavelengths (e.g. Stone et al. 2015). Bat vision is more sensitive to light with shorter wavelengths (e.g. Müller et al. 2009), and ultraviolet lights can attract insects and foraging bats. For similar interventions, see ‘Use ultraviolet filters on lights’ and ‘Use red lighting rather than other lighting colours’.
Müller B., Glösmann M., Peichl L., Knop G.C., Hagemann C. & Ammermüller J. (2009) Bat eyes have ultraviolet-sensitive cone photoreceptors. PLOS ONE, 4, e6390.
Stone E.L., Harris S. & Jones G. (2015) Impacts of artificial lighting on bats: a review of challenges and solutions. Mammalian Biology, 80, 213–219.