Action: Remove human food waste that may potentially serve as food sources for primates to avoid disease transmission and conflict with humans
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- We found no evidence for the effects of removing human wastes that may potentially serve as food sources for primates to avoid disease transmission and conflict with humans, on primate populations.
'No evidence' for an action means we have not yet found any studies that directly and quantitatively tested this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.
Food provisioning to primates in the form of human food waste is a common problem in tourist areas/near tourist lodges and in other areas where primates and humans co-occur (e.g. urban areas). It can lead to an increased risk of human-primate disease transmission (Beisner et al. 2016), changes in individual activity and ranging patterns (e.g. Altmann & Muruthi 1988, Sengupta et al. 2015), an increase in intra-group aggression levels (e.g. Brennan et al. 1985), and increased human-animal conflict (e.g. Brennan et al. 1985, Altmann & Muruthi 1988), all of which may have negative consequences for the primate individuals involved. Furthermore, provisioning may result in a decrease in the efficiency of primates in dispersing seeds, thereby indirectly altering the entire ecosystem (Sengupta et al. 2015). This intervention aims to prevent primates from consuming human food waste by removing it before it can serve as potential food sources to primates.
Altmann J. & Muruthi P. (1988) Differences in daily life between semiprovisioned and wiId-feeding baboons. American Journal of Primatology, 15, 213–221.Brennan E.J., Else J.G. & Altmann J. (1985) Ecology and behaviour of a pest primate: vervet monkeys in a tourist-lodge habitat. African Journal of Ecology, 23, 35–44.
Beisner B.A., Balasubramaniam K.N., Fernandez K., Heagerty A., Seil S.K., Atwill E.R., Gupta B.K., Tyagi P.C., Chauhan N.P.S., Bonal B.S., Sinha P.R. & McCowan B. (2016) Prevalence of enteric bacterial parasites with respect to anthropogenic factors among commensal rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India. Primates, 57, 459–469.
Brennan E.J., Else J.G. & Altmann J. (1985) Ecology and behaviour of a pest primate: vervet monkeys in a tourist-lodge habitat. African Journal of Ecology, 23, 35–44.
Sengupta A., McConkey K.R., Radhakrishna S. (2015) Primates, provisioning and plants: impacts of human cultural behaviours on primate ecological functions. PLoS ONE 10, e0140961.