Attitudes of Namibian commercial farmers toward large carnivores : the influence of conservancy membership

  • Published source details Schumann M., Watson L.H. & Schumann B.D. (2008) Attitudes of Namibian commercial farmers toward large carnivores : the influence of conservancy membership. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 38, 123-132.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Encourage community-based participation in land management

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Encourage community-based participation in land management

    A study in 2003–2004 of farmers across a large rangeland area in Namibia (Schumann et al. 2008) found that fewer farmers who engaged in community-based management of land through being members of a conservancy removed large carnivores from their land than did non-conservancy members. A lower percentage of conservancy members (57–67%) removed large carnivores compared to non-conservancy members (81–83%). Conservancies were legally protected areas, cooperatively managed by a group of land-occupiers with the goal of sharing resources among members. Some conservancy members derived income from trophy hunting of carnivores. A total of 147 farmers were surveyed from across 30,000 km2 of rangeland. They comprised 76 conservancy members (44 mixed farmers, 32 livestock farmers) and 71 non-conservancy members (33 mixed farmers, 38 livestock farmers). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews or by postal questionnaires in 2003–2004.

    (Summarised by: Nick Littlewood)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 19

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust