Encourage community-based participation in land management
Overall effectiveness category Likely to be beneficial
Number of studies: 2
Background information and definitions
When local community members are involved in management of local land resources, they may have a greater interest in ensuring long-term sustainability of that management. One potential outcome of this is a reduction in mammal persecution.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A study in 1993–2006 of a primarily mountainous grassland national park in Pakistan (Nawaz et al. 2008) found that involving local communities with park management was associated with an increasing population of Himalayan brown bears Ursus arctos isabellinus. The known population of bears in the park increased steadily from 19 in 1993 to 43 by 2006. Breeding productivity was, however, low and the increase was reported to be due in part to immigration. The paper attributes the larger population to a reduction in poaching and persecution, linked to increased community engagement in the park since its creation in 1993. This involved recognising local community grazing rights, employing local staff, supporting development projects and enabling local generation of funds from park visitors. Eighty-six bears were monitored. Ten were radio-collared. The remainder were monitored through direct observations of individually recognisable animals.Study and other actions tested
A study in 2003–2004 of farmers across a large rangeland area in Namibia (Schumann et al. 2008) found that fewer farmers who engaged in community-based management of land through being members of a conservancy removed large carnivores from their land than did non-conservancy members. A lower percentage of conservancy members (57–67%) removed large carnivores compared to non-conservancy members (81–83%). Conservancies were legally protected areas, cooperatively managed by a group of land-occupiers with the goal of sharing resources among members. Some conservancy members derived income from trophy hunting of carnivores. A total of 147 farmers were surveyed from across 30,000 km2 of rangeland. They comprised 76 conservancy members (44 mixed farmers, 32 livestock farmers) and 71 non-conservancy members (33 mixed farmers, 38 livestock farmers). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews or by postal questionnaires in 2003–2004.Study and other actions tested