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Providing evidence to improve practice

Action: Alter habitat to encourage birds to leave an area Bird Conservation

Key messages

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A single before-and-after study in the USA found that an entire Caspian tern Sterna caspia population moved following (amongst other interventions) the alteration of nesting habitat at the old colony site.


Supporting evidence from individual studies


A before-and-after study on two small islands in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, USA (Roby et al. 2002), found that an entire Caspian tern Sterna caspia colony (approximately 8,900 pairs) relocated from Rice Island to East Sand Island between 1999 and 2001, following habitat alteration on Rice Island. Wheat Triticum aestivum was planted and silt fencing erected to encourage vegetation growth, whilst suitable habitat was prepared on East Sand Island (see ‘Habitat creation – intertidal habitats’) along with several other interventions (see ‘Use decoys to attract birds to new nesting areas’, ‘Use vocalisations to attract birds to new nesting areas’ and ‘Control avian predators on islands’). The impact on conflict reduction (the purpose of the translocation) is discussed in ‘Move fish-eating birds to reduce conflict with fishermen’.


Referenced papers

Please cite as:

Williams, D.R., Child, M.F., Dicks, L.V., Ockendon, N., Pople, R.G., Showler, D.A., Walsh, J.C., zu Ermgassen, E.K.H.J. & Sutherland, W.J. (2019) Bird Conservation. Pages 141-290 in: W.J. Sutherland, L.V. Dicks, N. Ockendon, S.O. Petrovan & R.K. Smith (eds) What Works in Conservation 2019. Open Book Publishers, Cambridge, UK.