Create or retain deadwood in forest management
Overall effectiveness category Awaiting assessment
Number of studies: 1
Background information and definitions
In conventionally managed forests deadwood is often cleared out, either to use, or for safety, accessibility or aesthetic reasons. Although most butterflies and moths will not use deadwood directly, woodlands managed in a more natural way, with deadwood retained or added, may support a more diverse ecosystem. For example, the presence of deadwood should encourage a greater abundance and diversity of fungi, on which some species of moth depend (Bury et al. 2014).
Bury J., Hołowiński M., Jaworski T., Mleczak M., Zajda W. & Zamorski R. (2014) Notes of the occurrence in Poland of the rare tineid moth Scardia boletella (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Fragmenta Faunistica, 57, 131–139.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A replicated, site comparison study in 1992–1995 in 25 forests in Uppland and Östergötland, Sweden (Jonsell & Nordlander 2002) found that sites where deadwood had been left for many years supported more Scardia boletella moths than conventionally managed sites in one of two regions, but the occurrence of Archinemapogon yildizae moths was similar across all sites. In one of two regions, the proportion of tinder fungus Fomes fomentarius fruiting bodies in which Scardia boletella was found was higher at sites with a long history of deadwood presence (33–36% of 133 fruiting bodies) than at sites with a short history of deadwood presence (0–10% of 177 fruiting bodies) or with little deadwood (0% of 28 fruiting bodies), but there was no significant difference in the other region (long: 0–54% of 172 fruiting bodies; short: 0–38% of 260 fruiting bodies; no sites with little deadwood). The proportion of red-belted conk Fomitopsis pinicola and tinder fungus fruiting bodies on which A. yildizae moths were found was not significantly different at sites with a long (conk: 3–17% of 239 fruiting bodies; tinder: 0–29% of 305 fruiting bodies) or short (conk: 1–6% of 628 fruiting bodies; tinder: 0–10% of 437 fruiting bodies) history of deadwood presence, or with little deadwood (conk: 0–3% of 104 fruiting bodies; tinder: 7% of 28 fruiting bodies). Twenty-five forests were managed with one of three strategies based on the availability of deadwood: 10 sites had large amounts of deadwood which was likely to have been continuously available for >100 years; 12 sites had large amounts of deadwood which was not likely to have been available 100 years earlier; and three sites were managed conventionally for timber production, with little deadwood available. From 1992–1995, a total of 976 fruiting bodies of red-belted conk were collected from 11 sites, and 770 fruiting bodies of tinder fungus were collected from 20 sites. These were collected by walking a random route through each site, and sampling 1–8 fruiting bodies from every second tree trunk which contained some. Fungi were kept in sealed boxes with a glass vial inserted to collect emerging insects, and kept outdoors from September to February to experience natural temperatures.Study and other actions tested