Replace non-native species of tree/shrub
Overall effectiveness category Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)
Number of studies: 1
Background information and definitions
A combination of fuel reduction (e.g. by burning or understorey removal) and planting of native species could help replace an exotic mid- or understorey with a native one.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A replicated, controlled study in riparian forest along the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, USA, in 2002-2004 (Smith et al. 2009), found an 8% increase in the number of black-chinned hummingbird Archilochus alexandri nests (from 75 to 81) on three sites where native shrubs were planted after fuel reduction measures. Exotic shrubs and woody debris were removed and chipped before herbicide was applied to the root crowns of exotic species. This compared with an 18% increase at four sites with fuel reduction but no planting and a 42% decrease at two sites where debris was burned and no shrubs planted. These results are discussed in more detail in ‘Manually control/remove understorey and midstorey vegetation’ and ‘Use prescribed burning’.Study and other actions tested