Action: Improve fish food and pellets to reduce aquaculture waste production
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- We found no studies that evaluated the effects of improving fish food and pellets to reduce aquaculture waste production on subtidal benthic invertebrate populations.
‘We found no studies’ means that we have not yet found any studies that have directly evaluated this intervention during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore, we have no evidence to indicate whether or not the intervention has any desirable or harmful effects.
Aquaculture systems can negatively impact invertebrate subtidal communities through pollution and diminished water quality (Wu et al. 1994). Fish food in aquaculture is an important source of pollution because it is not always consumed by the farmed species and may sink to the seabed, leading to localised organic enrichment. Improving fish food and pellets to reduce aquaculture waste may reduce localised pollution and the associated threats to subtidal benthic invertebrates. This could be achieved by improving pellet aggregate strength, meaning that the pellet is less likely to break up, or by reducing the sinking rate of feed and pellets, both allowing more time for the cultured species to consume the food, thereby reducing the amount reaching the seabed (Cho & Bureau 1997; Wu 1995).
Cho C.Y. & Bureau D.P. (1997) Reduction of waste output from salmonid aquaculture through feeds and feeding. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 59, 155–160.
Wu R.S.S. (1995) The environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 159–166.
Wu R.S.S., Lam K.S., MacKay D.W., Lau T.C. & Yam V. (1994) Impact of marine fish farming on water quality and bottom sediment: A case study in the sub-tropical environment. Marine Environmental Research, 38, 115–145.