Action: Skunk cabbage: Biological control using co-evolved, host specific herbivores
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- No evidence was captured on biological control of skunk cabbage using co-evolved, host specific herbivores.
'No evidence' for an action means we have not yet found any studies that directly and quantitatively tested this action during our systematic journal and report searches. Therefore we have been unable to assess whether or not the action is effective or has any harmful impacts. Please get in touch if you know of such a study for this action.
One-off introduction of a co-evolved, host-specific species from the area of origin of the invasive pest can potentially provide sustainable control without affecting non-target native plants. In its native range, skunk cabbage Lysichiton americanus is eaten by black tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus (Gillingham et al. 1997) and by Grizzly bear Ursus arctos (Gyug et al. 2004). However, the fruits and seeds have not been reported to be eaten by animals in its introduced range (EPPO 2009).
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (2009) Report of a Pest Risk Analysis for Lysichiton americanus. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization Report Number 09-15078 rev, 61 pp.
Gillingham M.P., Parker K.L. & Hanley T.A. (1997) Forage intake by black-tailed deer in a natural environment. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 75, 1118-1128.
Gyug L., Hamilton T. & Austin M. (2004) Grizzly bear Ursus arctos. Accounts and Measures for Managing Identified Wildlife – Accounts V. Ministry of Environment, British Columbia, Canada. 20 pp.