Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Using cameras to monitor tunnel use by long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum): an informative, cost-efficient technique

Published source details

Pagnucco K.S., Paszkowski C.A. & Scrimgeour G.J. (2011) Using cameras to monitor tunnel use by long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum): an informative, cost-efficient technique. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 6, 277-286


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Install culverts or tunnels as road crossings Amphibian Conservation

A small, replicated study in 2009 of four amphibian tunnels in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta, Canada (Pagnucco, Paszkowski & Scrimgeour 2011) found that 8% of the estimated breeding population of long-toed salamanders Ambystoma macrodactylum used the tunnels. A total of 104 salamanders were captured in pitfall traps and at least another 26 by cameras in tunnels. Five western toad Anaxyrus boreas and seven barred tiger salamander Ambystoma mavortium were also recorded in the tunnels. Only one case of snake predation was recorded by cameras. Four concrete tunnels were installed 80–110 m apart under the road (0.6 x 0.5 m, 12 m long). Digital cameras were installed on the ceilings of tunnel entrances to monitor tunnel floors with motion-triggered and timed-interval images. One pitfall trap was installed at each tunnel exit in April–August.