Action: Hold translocated mammals in captivity before release
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- Fifteen studies evaluated the effects of holding translocated mammals in captivity before release. Four studies were in the USA, two were in Australia and one was in each of India, Canada, Switzerland, Croatia and Slovenia, the USA and Canada, the UK, France, Spain and South Africa.
COMMUNITY RESPONSE (0 STUDIES)
POPULATION RESPONSE (13 STUDIES)
- Abundance (2 studies): Two studies (one replicated, before-and-after study) in Croatia and Slovenia and the USA found that following translocation, with time in captivity prior to release, Eurasian lynx established an increasing population and Allegheny woodrat numbers in four of six sites increased over the first two years.
- Reproductive success (4 studies): Four studies in Croatia and Slovenia, Spain, the USA and Canada and Australia found that following translocation, with time in captivity prior to release, Eurasian lynx established a breeding population, and swift foxes, European otters and red-tailed phascogales reproduced.
- Survival (10 studies): Two studies (one controlled) in the UK and USA found that being held for longer in captivity before release increased survival rates of translocated European hedgehogs and, along with release in spring increased the survival rate of translocated Canada lynx in the first year. Four of six studies in India, the USA and Canada, the USA, France, South Africa and Australia found that following translocation, with time in captivity prior to release, most swift foxes and greater Indian rhinoceroses survived for at least 12-20 months, 48% of Eurasian lynx survived for 2–11 years and red-tailed phascogales survived for at least six years. The other two studies found that most kangaroo rats and all rock hyraxes died within 5-87 days. A replicated, controlled study in Canada found that translocated swift foxes that had been held in captivity prior to release had higher post-release survival rates than did released captive-bred animals.
- Condition (3 studies): A randomised, controlled study in Australia found that holding translocated eastern bettongs in captivity before release did not increase their body mass after release compared to animals released directly into the wild. A controlled study the UK found that being held for longer in captivity before release, reduced weight loss after release in translocated European hedgehogs. A study in Spain found that offspring of translocated European otters that were held in captivity before release, had similar genetic diversity to donor populations.
- Occupancy/range (2 studies): A study in the USA found that most translocated and captive-bred mountain lions that had been held in captivity prior to release established home ranges in the release area. A study in Croatia and Slovenia and review in Switzerland found that following translocation, with time in captivity prior to release, the range of Eurasian lynx increased over time.
BEHAVIOUR (0 STUDIES)
This intervention refers to holding translocated mammals in captivity away from the release site, before release. This may be done for a number of reasons such as logistics, to allow health checks to take place, to give captured animals time to form social groups, or to use animals in a captive breeding program. Time in captivity may be a few days, months or even a couple of years, depending on the reason for holding individuals in captivity before release.
Supporting evidence from individual studies
A study in 1984–1986 in a national park in Uttar Pradesh, India (Sale & Singh 1987) found that most translocated greater Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis that had been held in captivity before release into a fenced reserve, survived over 20 months after release. Seven of eight translocated rhinoceroses were still alive at least 20 months after release into a fenced reserve, and three of these animals survived for over 31 months. One elderly female died three months after release, due to a paralysed limb. In March 1984, six rhinoceroses were captured in Assam and housed in a pen for 9–19 days (during which one individual escaped). The remaining five were transported to Dudhwa National Park, where one elderly female died before release (following abortion of a dead foetus) and four were released in April–May 1984. Four other animals captured in late March 1985 in Sauraha (Nepal) were released to Dudhwa National Park one week after capture. Survival data were collated up to December 1986.
A replicated, controlled study in 1990-1992 at two grassland sites in Alberta, Canada (Carbyn et al. 1994) found that translocated swift foxes Vulpes velox that had been held in captivity prior to release had higher post-release survival rates than did released captive-bred animals. No statistical analyses were performed. Nine months after release into the wild, 12 out of 28 (43%) wild-born translocated swift foxes were known to be alive, compared with at least two out of 27 (7%) captive-bred swift foxes. In May 1990 and 1991, a total of 28 wild-born and 27 captive-bred swift foxes were released simultaneously. Wild-born animals had been captured in Wyoming, USA, 4-7 months before release and were quarantined for 30 days. Animals were released without prior conditioning in holding pens. Foxes were radio-collared and monitored from the ground and air, for at least nine months.
A study in 1993–1995 in northern Florida, USA (Belden & McCown 1996) found that most translocated and captive-bred mountain lions Puma concolor stanleyana that had been held in captivity prior to release established home ranges in the release area. Of 19 released mountain lions, 15 established one or more home ranges. Post-release survival periods for these 15 animals are not stated but two were killed (one illegally shot and one killed by a vehicle) and two were recaptured due to landowner concerns or concerns for their survival, 37–140 days after release. Nineteen mountain lions were released in northern Florida in 1993–1994. Ten were wild-caught and released within three months, three were caught and released after 3–8 years, and six released animals were captive-bred. Mountain lions were radio-tracked daily in February 1993–April 1993 and then for three days/week until June 1995.
A review in 1998 of translocations in 1971–1989 of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx into nine temperate forest sites in Switzerland (Breitenmoser et al. 1998) found that after being held in captivity before release, the range of lynx in the release area increased over time. Ten years after the first releases, lynx occupied approximately 4,000 km2. Seventeen years later, this had increased to >10,000 km2, although the rate of range expansion had slowed. One-hundred and three lynx were confirmed dead following translocations, mostly from road accidents (27%) and illegal shootings (26%). In 1971–1989, at least 25 lynx were released at nine sites in the Alps and Jura mountains in Switzerland. Most were captured in the Slovakian Carpathian Mountains, kept in captivity for at least one month and then released. From 1971 to 1998, questionnaires were distributed among the public to gather reports of lynx sightings. To confirm deaths, lynx carcasses were collected over an unspecified time period. From 1983 to 1998, thirty-seven lynx were captured and fitted with radio-collars to assess range occupancy.
A study in 1973–1995 in forests across Croatia and Slovenia (Cop & Frkovic 1998) found that following translocation, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx that had been held in captivity prior to release established a breeding population and expanded in number and range. Over the six years after release of six lynx, 19 litters totalling 30 kittens were recorded. Dispersing animals reached Bosnia-Herzegovina 11 years after releases and, two years later, one reached the Julian Alps, near Italy. The population, 22 years after releases, was estimated at 140 lynx in Slovenia and Croatia. These occupied approximately 3,700 km2 in Slovenia and 3,000 km2 in Croatia. Hunting was permitted from five years after releases and was the greatest cause of mortality, accounting for 229 of 277 known deaths. Lynx became extinct in Croatia and Slovenia at the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1973, six wild-caught lynx (three female, three male) were caught in Slovakia, quarantined for 46 days and released in Kocevje, Slovenia. Monitoring was based on reviews of hunting data and communications with hunters, foresters and naturalists.
A study in 1994–1998 at seven temperate grassland sites along the USA–Canada border (Moehrenschlager & Macdonald 2003) found that most translocated swift foxes Vulpes velox that had been held in captivity prior to release and were released in social groups survived for at least one year, and some reproduced near release sites. Eleven of 18 (61%) translocated swift foxes survived at least one year after release. Of these, 60% of animals translocated as juveniles went on to reproduce, as did 33% of translocated adults. In 1994–1996 foxes were captured in Wyoming, fitted with radio-collars and held in captivity for 22–57 days. In autumn 1994–1996, animals were released in mixed-gender groups of up to three individuals that had been trapped in close proximity. Release sites were located in areas with pre-existing, but small, fox populations and with low numbers of predators and high prey availability. Foxes were monitored by visual surveys and ground-based and aerial radio-tracking.
A controlled study in 2004 in 20 suburban gardens in Bristol, UK (Molony et al. 2006) found that after being held for a period in captivity before release, translocated European hedgehogs Erinaceus europaeus had higher survival rates and lower body weight loss than did individuals translocated with minimum time in captivity. A higher proportion of hedgehogs translocated after over a month in captivity survived (82%) and they lost less body weight (9%) over the eight weeks following release compared to individuals translocated after less than six days in captivity (survival: 41%; reduction in body weight: 33%). Over the same period, 64–95% of non-translocated hedgehogs survived and these lost 5–10% of body weight. Between May and June 2004, forty-three hedgehogs were translocated from the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, to 10 suburban gardens in Bristol. Twenty-three had spent >1 month in captivity and 20 had spent <6 days in captivity. Food was provided during the first week after release. Translocated hedgehogs were radio-tracked over eight weeks. Over the same period, 20 free-living hedgehogs captured and released <50 m from the same set of 20 gardens together with 26 free-living hedgehogs caught and released at gardens >3 km away were monitored. Hedgehogs were weighed every 10 days.
A study in 1983–2002 in a temperate forest in Vosges massif, France (Vandel et al. 2006) found that following translocation of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx that had been held in captivity before release, around half survived for 2–11 years. Ten of 21 animals survived for 2–11 years after release. The distribution of lynx increased from 1,870 km2 (six years after the first releases) to 3,160 km2 (12 years later). At least two females produced litters. In 1983–1993, twenty-one adult lynx were brought to France from European zoos. The program sought wild-caught lynx for releases, however the exact origin of each animal, and the length of time that each spent in captivity, are unclear. Lynx were released at four sites in the Vosges Mountains. The first eight animals were held in cages at the release site for 4–45 days prior to release, but the remainder were released immediately upon arrival. Animals were radio-tracked for 1–847 days. The presence of lynx was also established through sightings, footprints, detection of faeces or hair and reports of attacks on domestic animals.
A study in 1995–2004 in three riparian and wetland sites in north-eastern Spain (Ferrando et al. 2008) found that following translocations of European otters Lutra lutra that were held in captivity before release, animals reproduced and offspring had similar genetic diversity to that of donor populations. By nine years after the first releases, at least 19 offspring had been born to translocated otters. Genetic diversity in these offspring was similar to that of the donor populations (data reported as genetic heterozygosity). In 1995–2002, forty-two otters were released into three wetland and river areas. All otters were caught in western Iberia and were quarantined before release. Blood samples were collected from 23 translocated otters. In February–March 2004, the study area was divided into eight zones, each of which was surveyed over five consecutive days. In total, 104 otter faeces and anal secretion samples were collected from release areas. Samples were genetically analysed and compared to samples from translocated otters.
A study in 2005–2006 at rocky outcrops on a reserve in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (Wimberger et al. 2009) found that translocated rock hyraxes Procavia capensis that were held in captivity before release in a social group, and provided with an artificial refuge and supplementary food after release, all died (or were presumed to have died) within 87 days of release. Eighty-seven days after the release of 17 hyraxes, none could be relocated. In July 2005, ten adult hyraxes were caught in baited mammal traps (900 × 310 × 320 mm), and held in captivity for 16 months, during which time three died. The remaining seven were released in November 2006, along with the eight juveniles and two pups born to them in captivity, to a 656-ha reserve where the species was nearly extinct. For four months prior to release, the group was housed together in an outdoor cage (5.9 × 2.5 × 3.2 m). Hyraxes were released into a hay-filled hutch which was left in place for several months, and were provided with cabbage for one week after release. Hyraxes were monitored by direct observations and by walking regular transects, daily for the first week decreasing to monthly by the end of the study.
A study in 2001 in a grassland and shrubland site in California, USA (Germano 2010) found that most translocated Tipton kangaroo rats Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides and Heermann’s kangaroo rats Dipodomys heermanni ssp. that were held in captivity prior to release died within five days of release. All four Tipton kangaroo rats were predated within five days of translocation, and only one of seven Heermann’s kangaroo rats survived over 45 days. Three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were predated, two died as a result of aggression from other Heermann’s kangaroo rats, and the fate of one was unknown. In September 2001, four juvenile Tipton kangaroo rats and three Heermann’s kangaroo rats were captured and held in captivity for two months before release at a protected site in November. In December 2001, a further four Heermann’s kangaroo rats were caught and translocated to the same site. All 11 animals were fitted with a radio-transmitter and ear tags, and monitored for seven days in captivity prior to release. The release site was already occupied by Heermann’s kangaroo rats. Animals were released into individual artificial burrows (two 90-cm-long cardboard tubes with a chamber about 30 cm below the surface), dug 10–15 m apart and provided with seeds. Burrows were plugged with paper towels until dusk. Animals were radio-tracked every 1–8 days for 18–45 days after release.
A study in 1999-2007 in montane forest in Colorado, USA (Devineau et al. 2011) found that more time in captivity and release in spring increased the survival rate of translocated Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in the first year. Lynx released in spring after >45 days in captivity had lower monthly mortality rates (0.4-2.8% in 2000-2006) than lynx released in spring after 21 days in captivity (1.4% in 2000) or released after 7 days but not in spring (20.5% in 1999). Overall, 117 of 218 released lynxes (53%) survived to at least 1–8 years after release. From 1999 to 2006, two hundred and eighteen lynx were translocated to a 20,684-km2 mixed forest area in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, from Canada and the USA. Lynx were held in captivity near their source location (for 3-68 days) prior to transfer to a holding facility (40 pens, 2.4 x 1.2 m with ceilings) in Colorado (100 km from release site). Time in the Colorado holding facility varied (5-137 days): release within 7 days following veterinary inspection (4 individuals in 1999); release after 3 weeks (9 individuals in 2000); release after >3 weeks in the spring (1 April-31 May; 28 individuals in 2000); release in spring after >3 weeks in captivity but excluding any juveniles or pregnant females (177 individuals in 2000-2006). Lynx were fed a diet of rabbit and commercial carnivore food while in captivity. Lynx were radio-collared and monitored weekly for the first year following release (5,324 locations recorded).
A replicated, before-and-after study in 2005–2009 in six riparian areas in Indiana, USA (Smyser et al. 2013) found that following translocation of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister that were held in captivity prior to release, numbers in four out of six sites increased over the first two years. Two years after 54 woodrats were translocated to six sites, numbers had increased in four sites, but only one woodrat was recorded at each of the other two sites. At this time, there were more woodrats overall (total 67 animals) than before animals were translocated (16 animals). In 2007–2008, sixty-seven woodrats were captured in Kentucky and Tennessee. After five days, they were fitted with radio-transmitters and transported to release sites. In 2005–2006 (before translocations) and in 2007–2009 (after translocations), woodrat abundance was estimated using 35–100 live traps/site between June and August. Trapping was carried out over two consecutive nights at each site and traps were checked at dawn. All woodrats caught were fitted with ear tags.
A study in 2009–2015 in a forest and shrubland reserve in Western Australia, Australia (Short & Hide 2015) found that a translocated population of red-tailed phascogales Phascogale calura, some of which were held in captivity prior to release into a fenced area containing artificial nest boxes, survived and reproduced for at least six years, and spread outside the release area. At least nine of 12 translocated female red-tailed phascogales survived 8–9 months post-release and all nine reproduced in the wild. At least one female survived two years after release. From 1–6 years post-release, nest box occupancy within and outside the fenced area remained over 60%. In April 2009, twenty red-tailed phascogales were translocated to a 430-ha fenced area, within a 560-ha reserve surrounded by farmland, and released at dusk on the day of capture. Seven phascogales were released in June 2010, six weeks after capture. Animals were released into or adjacent to 22 nest boxes, alone or in pairs. From November 2010–January 2013, thirteen additional boxes were installed inside (four) and outside (nine) the fenced area. Invasive foxes Vulpes vulpes and cats Felis catus were absent from the fenced area, but the fence did not present a barrier to phascogales. Phascogales were monitored between April 2009 and March 2011 using baited Elliott live-traps (nine sessions, 5,341 trap nights) and through periodic monitoring between July 2009 and January 2015 of the nest boxes.
A randomised, controlled study in 2011–2014 in a woodland reserve in Australian Capital Territory, Australia (Batson et al. 2016) found that holding translocated eastern bettongs Bettongia gaimardi in captivity before release did not affect their body mass after release relative to animals released directly into the wild. Bettongs released after time in captivity were heavier at release (1.9 kg) than were those released immediately (1.7 kg) though subsequently there were no significant differences in body weight (see paper for details). In 2011–2012, thirty-two adult wild-born bettongs were captured in Tasmania and translocated to mainland Australia. Sixteen randomly selected individuals were immediately released into a fenced reserve, where invasive predators had been controlled. The remaining 16 were housed for 30 days in small enclosures (0.5-1.0 ha) before transfer to larger enclosures (2.6–9.4 ha). In total, they were held for 95–345 days before release. Bettongs were radio-tagged and were trapped and weighed periodically up to 18 months after release.
- Sale J.B. & Singh S. (1987) Reintroduction of greater Indian rhinoceros into Dudhwa National Park. Oryx, 21, 81-84
- Carbyn L.N., Armbruster H.J. & Mamo C. (1994) The swift fox reintroduction program in Canada from 1983 to 1992. Pages 247-271 in: M.L. Bowles & C.J. Whelan (eds.) Restoration of endangered species: conceptual issues, planning and implementation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
- Belden R.C. & McCown J.W. (1996) Florida panther reintroduction feasibility study. Final Report. Study Number: 7507. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission report.
- Breitenmoser U. (1998) Re-introduction and present status of the lynx (Lynx lynx) in Switzerland. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 10, 17-30
- Cop J. & Frkovic A. (1998) The re-introduction of the lynx in Slovenia and its present status in Slovenia and Croatia. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 10, 65-76
- Moehrenschlager A. & Macdonald D.W. (2003) Movement and survival parameters of translocated and resident swift foxes Vulpes velox. Animal Conservation, 6, 199-206
- Molony S.E., Dowding C.V., Baker P.J., Cuthill I.C. & Harris S. (2006) The effect of translocation and temporary captivity on wildlife rehabilitation success: an experimental study using European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). Biological Conservation, 130, 530-537
- Vandel J., Stahl P., Herrenschmidt V. & Marboutin E. (2006) Reintroduction of the lynx into the Vosges mountain massif: from animal survival and movements to population development. Biological Conservation, 131, 370-385
- Ferrando A., Lecis R., Domingo-roura X. & Ponsà M. (2008) Genetic diversity and individual identification of reintroduced otters (Lutra lutra) in north-eastern Spain by DNA genotyping of spraints. Conservation Genetics, 9, 129-139
- Wimberger K., Downs C.T. & Perrin M.R. (2009) Two unsuccessful reintroduction attempts of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) into a reserve in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 39, 192-201
- Germano D.J. (2010) Survivorship of translocated kangaroo rats in the San Joaquin Valley, California. California Fish and Game, 96, 82-89
- Devineau O., Shenk T.M., Doherty Jr P.F., White G.C. & Kahn R.H. (2011) Assessing release protocols for Canada lynx reintroduction in Colorado. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 75, 623-630
- Smyser T.J., Johnson S.A., Page L.K., Hudson C.M. & Rhodes O.E. (2013) Use of experimental translocations of Allegheny woodrat to decipher causal agents of decline. Conservation Biology, 27, 752-762
- Short J. & Hide A. (2015) Successful reintroduction of red-tailed phascogale to Wadderin Sanctuary in the eastern wheatbelt of Western Australia. Australian Mammalogy, 37, 234-244
- Batson W.G., Gordon I.J., Fletcher D.B. & Manning A.D. (2016) The effect of pre-release captivity on post-release performance in reintroduced eastern bettongs Bettongia gaimardi. Oryx, 50, 664-673