Study

Substratum type affects recruitment and development of marine assemblages over artificial substrata: a case study in the Alboran Sea

  • Published source details Sempere-Valverde J., Ostalé-Valriberas E., Farfán G.M. & Espinosa F. (2018) Substratum type affects recruitment and development of marine assemblages over artificial substrata: a case study in the Alboran Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 204, 56-65.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create grooves and small protrusions, ridges or ledges (1–50 mm) on subtidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures

Use environmentally-sensitive material on intertidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures

Create grooves and small protrusions, ridges or ledges (1–50 mm) on intertidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures

Use environmentally-sensitive material on subtidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures
  1. Create grooves and small protrusions, ridges or ledges (1–50 mm) on subtidal artificial structures

    A replicated study in 2014–2015 on a subtidal rocky reef on open coastline in the Alboran Sea, Spain (Sempere-Valverde et al. 2018) reported that settlement plates with groove habitats and small protrusions supported 33 macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrate species groups. After 11 months, plates with grooves and protrusions supported 33 species groups in total (20 macroalgae, 13 non-mobile invertebrates). On average, there were nine species/pair of plates, with 55% live cover. Settlement plates (170 × 170 mm) were cut to create a regular grid of six groove habitats (length: 170 mm; width/depth: ~7 mm) between 16 square protrusions (length/width: 30 mm; height: ~7 mm) on their surfaces. Plates were either sandstone, limestone, gabbro, slate or concrete. Two of each material were attached horizontally at 15 m depth on gneiss rocky seabed in each of three sites in June 2014. Macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrates on each pair of plates were counted from photographs over 11 months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

  2. Use environmentally-sensitive material on intertidal artificial structures

    A replicated, randomized, paired sites, controlled study (year not reported) on an intertidal seawall in Ceuta Port in the Alboran Sea, Spain (Sempere-Valverde et al. 2018) found that sandstone settlement plates had higher chlorophyll-a and diatom abundance than limestone, slate, gabbro and concrete plates, and that material altered the diatom community composition but not their species richness or diversity. After two months, chlorophyll-a density was higher on sandstone settlement plates (18 μg/cm2) than limestone (3 μg/cm2), slate (3 μg/cm2) and concrete (6 μg/cm2) plates, which were all similar, while gabbro plates were similar to all materials (13 μg/cm2). Diatom species diversity and richness (data not reported) was similar on all materials, while their community composition differed (data reported as statistical model results), but it was not clear which materials differed. Total diatom abundance was higher on sandstone plates (841 individuals) than limestone (329), slate (104), gabbro (275) and concrete (173). Settlement plates (170 × 170 mm) were made from sandstone, limestone, slate, gabbro and concrete. One of each was randomly arranged horizontally on each of five midshore boulders along a limestone boulder seawall (month/year not reported). Plate surfaces had grooves and small protrusions created on them. Microalgae and chlorophyll-a on plates were measured using a scanning electron microscope and spectrophotometer, respectively, after two months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

  3. Create grooves and small protrusions, ridges or ledges (1–50 mm) on intertidal artificial structures

    A replicated study (year not reported) on an intertidal seawall in Ceuta Port in the Alboran Sea, Spain (Sempere-Valverde et al. 2018) reported that settlement plates with groove habitats and small protrusions had chlorophyll-a and 15 diatom species on their surfaces. After two months, chlorophyll-a density on plates with grooves and protrusions ranged from 3–18 μg/cm2. Total abundances of 15 diatom species ranged from 1–752 individuals across all plates. Settlement plates (170 × 170 mm) were cut to create a regular grid of six groove habitats (length: 170 mm; width/depth: ~7 mm) between 16 square protrusions (length/width: 30 mm; height: ~7 mm) on their surfaces. Plates were either sandstone, limestone, gabbro, slate or concrete. One of each material was randomly arranged, horizontally, on each of five midshore boulders along a limestone boulder seawall (month/year not reported). Microalgae and chlorophyll-a on plates were measured using a scanning microscope and spectrophotometer, respectively, after two months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

  4. Use environmentally-sensitive material on subtidal artificial structures

    A replicated, randomized, paired sites, controlled study in 2014–2015 on a subtidal rocky reef on open coastline in the Alboran Sea, Spain (Sempere-Valverde et al. 2018) found that sandstone, limestone, slate and gabbro settlement plates supported similar macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrate species diversity and richness but different community composition to concrete plates, and that live cover was higher on sandstone than concrete plates. Over 11 months, macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrate species diversity was similar on sandstone, limestone, slate, gabbro and concrete settlement plates (data reported as Shannon index). Community composition differed on all materials, apart from sandstone vs gabbro and slate vs gabbro (data reported as statistical model results), and sandstone plates were more similar to natural rock surfaces than the other materials were (data not statistically tested). Total live cover was higher on sandstone than concrete and gabbro plates, while species richness was higher on sandstone than limestone (data not reported), but no other significant differences were found. Settlement plates (170 × 170 mm) were made from sandstone, limestone, slate, gabbro or concrete. Two of each material were randomly arranged horizontally at 15 m depth in each of three sites on a gneiss reef in June 2014. Plate surfaces had grooves and small protrusions. Macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrates on each pair of plates and on adjacent natural rock surfaces (170 × 170 mm) were counted from photographs over 11 months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust