Study

Blue is the new green – harnessing urban coastal infrastructure for ecological enhancement

  • Published source details Perkol-Finkel S. & Sella I. (2016) Blue is the new green – harnessing urban coastal infrastructure for ecological enhancement. Pages 139-149 in: A. Baptiste (ed.) Coastal Management: Changing Coast, Changing Climate, Changing Minds. ICE Publishing, London.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create textured surfaces (≤1 mm) on subtidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures

Use environmentally-sensitive material on subtidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures

Create 'rock pools' on intertidal artificial structures

Action Link
Biodiversity of Marine Artificial Structures
  1. Create textured surfaces (≤1 mm) on subtidal artificial structures

    A replicated, controlled study in 2013–2014 on 24 jetty pilings in the Hudson River estuary, USA (Perkol-Finkel & Sella 2016) found that creating textured surfaces on the pilings, along with using environmentally-sensitive material, increased the macroalgae and invertebrate species richness, cover and biomass and altered the community composition on piling surfaces. After 14 months, pilings with textured surfaces and environmentally-sensitive material supported 18 macroalgae and invertebrate species with 90–100% cover, while fibreglass pilings without texture supported nine species with 40–85% cover (data not statistically tested). Biomass was higher on pilings with textured surfaces (0.07 g/cm2) than without (0.02 g/cm2) and the community composition differed (data reported as statistical model results). Over 14 months, six species (4 non-mobile invertebrates, 2 mobile invertebrates) recorded on pilings with texture were absent from those without. It is not clear whether these effects were the direct result of creating textured surfaces or using environmentally-sensitive material. Textured surfaces were created on concrete jetty piling encasements using a formliner during maintenance works. Nine textured encasements made from patented ECOncreteTM material and three untextured fibreglass encasements were attached around pilings in each of two sites along a jetty in June 2013 (depth not reported). Macroalgae and invertebrates were counted on and around pilings and biomass was measured (dry weight) in the laboratory over 14 months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

  2. Use environmentally-sensitive material on subtidal artificial structures

    A replicated, controlled study in 2013–2014 on 24 jetty pilings in the Hudson River estuary, USA (Perkol-Finkel & Sella 2016) found that using ECOncreteTM on pilings, along with creating textured surfaces, increased the macroalgae and invertebrate species richness, cover and biomass and altered the community composition on piling surfaces. After 14 months, ECOncreteTM pilings with textured surfaces supported 18 macroalgae and invertebrate species with 90–100% cover, while fibreglass pilings without texture supported nine species with 40–85% cover (data not statistically tested). Biomass was higher on ECOncreteTM pilings (0.07 g/cm2) than fibreglass pilings (0.02 g/cm2) and the community composition differed (data reported as statistical model results). Over 14 months, six species (4 non-mobile invertebrates, 2 mobile invertebrates) recorded on ECOncreteTM pilings were absent from fibreglass ones. It is not clear whether these effects were the direct result of using environmentally-sensitive material or creating textured surfaces. Jetty piling encasements were made from patented ECOncreteTM material using a formliner during maintenance works. Nine ECOncreteTM encasements with textured surfaces and three untextured fibreglass encasements were attached around pilings in each of two sites on a jetty in June 2013 (depth not reported). Macroalgae and invertebrates were counted on and around pilings and biomass was measured (dry weight) in the laboratory over 14 months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

  3. Create 'rock pools' on intertidal artificial structures

    A replicated, controlled study in 2013–2014 on an intertidal seawall in the Hudson River estuary, USA (Perkol-Finkel & Sella 2016) reported that rock pools created on the seawall supported macroalgae, invertebrate and fish species that were absent from seawall surfaces without rock pools. After nine months, pools supported 89–100% cover of macroalgae and non-mobile invertebrates and at least seven species (1 macroalgae, 2 non-mobile invertebrates, 3 mobile invertebrates, ≥1 fish) that were absent from seawall surfaces without pools. Rock pools were created by placing concrete troughs amongst a boulder seawall during construction. Seven rectangular pools (volume: 59 l; other dimensions not reported) with stepped sides were installed at highshore in November 2013. Macroalgae, invertebrates and fishes were counted during low tide in pools and on surrounding seawall surfaces at the same shore level (details not reported) after nine months.

    (Summarised by: Ally Evans)

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