Study

Can carbon and phosphorous amendments increase native forbs in a restoration process? A case study in the Northern Tall-grass Prairie (U.S.A.)

  • Published source details Grygiel C.E., Norland J.E. & Biondini M.E. (2012) Can carbon and phosphorous amendments increase native forbs in a restoration process? A case study in the Northern Tall-grass Prairie (U.S.A.). Restoration Ecology, 20, 122-130.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Add carbon to soil before or after seeding/planting

Action Link
Grassland Conservation

Add fertilizer to soil before or after seeding/planting

Action Link
Grassland Conservation
  1. Add carbon to soil before or after seeding/planting

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2000–2006 in a former arable field in Minnesota, USA (Grygiel et al. 2012; same study site as Grygiel et al. 2014) found that adding carbon to soil after sowing seeds led to a decrease in the density of seeded and unseeded forb species compared to sowing without carbon. After 1–5 years, forb density was lower in plots where carbon was added and seeds were sown (seeded forbs: 9–35 plants/m2; unseeded forbs: 13–70 plants/m2) than in plots where no carbon was added and seeds were sown (seeded forbs: 30–128 plants/m2; unseeded forbs: 32–186 plants/m2). In autumn 2000, two 2.8 × 2.8 m plots in each of ten blocks were tilled and seeded with a combination of native grasses and forbs at a rate of 25 kg/ha. In spring 2001, carbon was added (granular sugar at a rate of 0.5 kg/m2) to one plot/block, while no carbon was added to the other plot. Vegetation was sampled in August 2002–2006 using four randomly placed 0.25-m2 quadrats/plot.

    (Summarised by: Anna Berthinussen)

  2. Add fertilizer to soil before or after seeding/planting

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2000–2006 in a former arable field in Minnesota, USA (Grygiel et al. 2012; same study site as Grygiel et al. 2014) found that adding fertilizer after sowing seeds did not alter the density of seeded or unseeded forb species compared to sowing without fertilizer. After 1–5 years, forb density did not differ significantly between plots where fertilizer was added and seeds were sown (seeded forbs: 30–137 plants/m2; unseeded forbs: 33–233 plants/m2) and plots where no fertilizer was added and seeds were sown (seeded forbs: 30–128 plants/m2; unseeded forbs: 32–186 plants/m2). In autumn 2000, two 2.8 × 2.8 m plots in each of ten blocks were tilled and seeded with a combination of native grasses and forbs at a rate of 25 kg/ha. In spring 2001, slow-release phosphorus fertilizer was added to one plot/block at a rate of 22 g/m2, while no fertilizer was added to the other plot. Vegetation was sampled in August 2002–2006 using four randomly placed 0.25-m2 quadrats/plot.

    (Summarised by: Philip Martin)

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