An assessment of wetlands establishment techniques at a Florida phosphate mine site

  • Published source details Gilbert T., King T., Hord L. & Allen J.N. Jr. (1980) An assessment of wetlands establishment techniques at a Florida phosphate mine site. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Restoration and Creation of Wetlands, Tampa, Florida, 7, 245-263.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Directly plant trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Directly plant trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

    A study in 1979 of a swamp restoration project in Florida, USA (Gilbert et al. 1980) reported that 7–85% of planted tree seedlings survived over 4–5 months. Of the 16 planted species, survival was lowest for longleaf pine Pinus palustris (7%) and highest for green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica and baldcypress Taxodium distichum (both 85%). For all species, the survival rate varied between plots at different elevations. Statistical significance was not assessed. Methods: In January and February 1979, seedlings of native Florida tree species were planted into a wetland undergoing restoration. The site was historically a swamp, then mined for phosphate. It was modified before planting by levelling spoil piles, creating wet basins and installing inflow/outfall pipes. Most of the 10,400 seedlings were planted in 26 multispecies plots (4–5 species/plot; seedlings 1.5 metres apart) but some were planted randomly throughout the site. Survival of planted seedlings was recorded in June 1979.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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