Study

Restoration of a coastal swamp forest in southeast Brazil

  • Published source details Zamith L.R. & Scarano F.R. (2010) Restoration of a coastal swamp forest in southeast Brazil. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 18, 435-448.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Create mounds or hollows before planting trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Add below-ground organic matter before/after planting trees/ shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Directly plant trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Create mounds or hollows before planting trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

    A replicated, controlled study in 2002–2005 in a degraded coastal swamp in southeast Brazil (Zamith & Scarano 2010) reported that creating mounds before planting tree seedlings had mixed effects on their survival over three years, but typically had no significant effect on growth. Planting into mounds rather than at ground level increased survival for two of five species (mounds: 70–77%; ground level: 57–67%), reduced survival for two species (mounds: 57–67%; ground level: 63–73%) and had no effect on survival of one species (100% in mounds or at ground level). Statistical significance of these survival results was not assessed. In 11 of 15 comparisons, growth rates were statistically similar for seedlings planted in mounds and at ground level. In the other four comparisons, seedlings planted in mounds grew more, or shrunk less, than seedlings planted at ground level (see original paper for data). Methods: In May 2002, sixty seedlings of each of five tree species were planted, 1.5 m apart, into a degraded coastal swamp. Thirty seedlings/species were planted into created mounds (10 cm high). Thirty seedlings/species were planted at ground level. All seedlings received 30 L of manure. Invasive trees and grasses were removed from the swamp before planting. Seedling survival was monitored until May 2005. Seedling diameter, height and canopy area were measured in August 2002 and August 2005.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  2. Add below-ground organic matter before/after planting trees/ shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2002–2005 in a degraded coastal swamp in southeast Brazil (Zamith & Scarano 2010) reported that adding manure had mixed effects on survival and growth of planted tree seedlings over three years, depending on species, dose and metric. Manure increased survival for one of five planted species (manure: 77–83%; no manure: 67%) but reduced survival for two species (manure: 57–83%; no manure: 77–93%). For the other two species, manure either increased or reduced survival depending on the dose. Statistical significance of these survival results was not assessed. Manure had no significant effect on seedling growth in 20 of 30 comparisons. It did increase diameter growth in 4 of 10 comparisons, height growth in 4 of 10 comparisons, and canopy area growth in 2 of 10 comparisons (see original paper for data). However, manure did not consistently increase growth, across all metrics and doses, for any species. Methods: In May 2002, ninety seedlings of each of five tree species were planted, 1.5 m apart, into a degraded coastal swamp. Thirty seedlings/species received each manure treatment: 30 L/seedling, 15 L/seedling or none. The study does not report further details of the manure or application. Invasive trees and grasses were removed from the swamp before planting. The survival of each seedling was monitored until May 2005. The diameter, height and canopy area of each seedling were measured in August 2002 and August 2005.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  3. Directly plant trees/shrubs: brackish/saline wetlands

    A study in 2002–2005 in a degraded coastal swamp in southeast Brazil (Zamith & Scarano 2010) reported that 0–93% of planted tree/shrub seedlings survived over three years, and found that survivors typically grew. Nine species were planted. For five species, most planted individuals survived over three years. Survival rates ranged from 57% for Myrcia multiflora to 93% for Tabaebuia cassinoides. For the other four species, survival rates were 2% (two species) or 0% (two species). Seedlings grew significantly larger in 54 of 69 comparisons (involving stem diameter, height or canopy cover of the first five species). Seedlings shrunk in seven of the other comparisons. The study found that survival and growth varied according to species, growth metric, initial seedling height (see original paper), addition of organic matter (see Action: Add below-ground organic matter before/after planting) and whether seedlings were planted into mounds or at ground level (see Action: Create mounds or hollows before planting). Methods: In May 2002, a total of 1,230 nursery-grown tree and shrub seedlings were planted into a degraded coastal swamp. There were 90–150 seedlings/species. Seedlings were planted 1.5 m apart, in mounds or at ground level, and with or without added manure. Invasive trees and grasses were removed from the swamp before planting. Seedling survival was monitored until May 2005. Seedling diameter, height and canopy area were measured in August 2002 and August 2005.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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