Study

Freshwater wetland restoration of an abandoned sand mine: seed bank recruitment dynamics and plant colonization

  • Published source details Vivian-Smith G. & Handel S.N. (1996) Freshwater wetland restoration of an abandoned sand mine: seed bank recruitment dynamics and plant colonization. Wetlands, 16, 185-196

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Restore/create freshwater marshes or swamps (multiple actions)

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Restore/create freshwater marshes or swamps (multiple actions)

    A study in 1992–1993 on a former sand mine in New Jersey, USA (Vivian-Smith & Handel 1996) reported that following multiple restoration interventions the site developed vegetation cover, including some wetland-characteristic species. After 10 months, 82 plant species were recorded in quadrats across the site (area surveyed: 26.75 m2) with 6.3 species/0.25-m2 quadrat. There were at least 20 wetland-characteristic species across the site. The most abundant taxa were panicgrasses Panicum spp. (33 plants/m2), tapertip rush Juncus acuminatus (15 plants/m2) and toad rush Juncus bufonius (8 plants/m2). The only common woody taxa were willows Salix spp. (two species; 0.3–0.4 plants/m2). Methods: In October–November 1992, a former sand mine (last mined in the early 1990s) was subjected to multiple interventions: reprofiling, adding soil from another wetland (5–10 cm layer over the site), planting herbs and woody plants (species not reported), sowing a grass cover crop (including a panicgrass species), mulching with straw and adding lime. The aim was to restore a shrubby freshwater wetland. Vegetation was surveyed in August 1993, in 107 quadrats (each 0.25 m2) spread across the site.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

Output references

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, terrestrial mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 18

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.


Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust