Factors affecting the establishment of Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla in urban lakeshore restorations

  • Published source details Vanderbosch D.A. & Galatowitsch S.M. (2011) Factors affecting the establishment of Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla in urban lakeshore restorations. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 19, 35-45.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Directly plant non-woody plants: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Directly plant non-woody plants: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated study in 2006–2007 along the shores of five freshwater lakes in Minnesota, USA (Vanderbosch & Galatowitsch 2011) reported 15% overall survival of planted softstem bulrush Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani plugs after approximately one year. The survival rate per lake ranged from 4% to 31%. It was significantly affected by month of planting and plug type, but not water depth. For example, plugs grown in pots and planted in June had the highest survival rate (39%) whilst plugs grown in pots and planted in August or grown in mats and planted in September had the lowest survival rate (3%). Methods: Between May and September 2006, a total of 3,750 bulrush plugs were planted along degraded shorelines within five urban lakes (150 plugs/month/lake, spaced 45 cm apart). Each greenhouse-reared plug contained 3–5 individual plants. Biomass at planting varied between months. Half of the plugs had been grown in pots and half on coconut fibre mats. Half were planted in shallow water (maximum depth 0–30 cm) and half in deep water (maximum depth 31–60 cm). All planted areas were fenced to exclude muskrats Ondatra zibethicus. Plugs containing ≥1 live plant were recorded until May–June 2007.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust