Study

Effects of various treatments on the germination of sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense Crantz, seeds

  • Published source details Ponzio K.J. (1998) Effects of various treatments on the germination of sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense Crantz, seeds. Wetlands, 18, 51-58

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Heat seeds of non-woody plants before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Chill seeds of non-woody plants before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Physically damage seeds of non-woody plants before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Heat seeds of non-woody plants before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–1995 in a greenhouse in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that heating sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds had no significant effect on their germination rate. Seeds dipped in hot water before soaking in room-temperature water had a 50% germination rate, whilst seeds dried in an oven before soaking in room-temperature water had a 40% germination rate. Seeds only soaked in room-temperature water had a 44% germination rate: not significantly different from either of the heat treatments. For reference, the germination rate of seeds that were neither heated nor soaked was 55%. Methods: In September 1994, three-year-old sawgrass seeds were sprinkled onto 24 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). Eighteen trays were planted with seeds that had been soaked in 25°C water for 24 h. Seeds in twelve of these trays had been heated before soaking: six steeped in 80°C water for 3 min, and six dried in an oven at 80°C for 24 h. Ten trays were planted with untreated seeds (neither heated nor soaked). The trays were placed in random positions in a greenhouse and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  2. Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–1996 in greenhouses in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that soaking sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds in gibberellic acid had no significant effect on their germination rate. Germination rates did not significantly differ between seeds soaked in water then gibberellic acid (48–49% germinated) and seeds soaked in water only (44–51% germinated). For reference, seeds that were not soaked in gibberellic acid or water had a germination rate of 55–57%. Methods: Across September 1994 and 1995, sawgrass seeds (either freshly collected or three years old) were sprinkled onto 30 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). Ten trays were planted with seeds soaked in water for 24 h then a gibberellic acid solution for 12 h. Ten trays were planted with seeds soaked in water for 24 h. Ten trays were planted with untreated seeds (left dry at room temperature). The trays were placed in random positions in greenhouses and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  3. Chill seeds of non-woody plants before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1995–1996 in a greenhouse in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that chilling sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds had no significant effect on their germination rate, whilst freezing sawgrass seeds reduced their germination rate. Germination success did not significantly differ between seeds chilled in water (50% germinated) and seeds stored dry at room temperature (57% germinated). However, germination success of seeds that were frozen then chilled in water was significantly lower (41% germinated) than for the chilled-only seeds and the seeds stored at room temperature. Methods: In September 1995, freshly-collected sawgrass seeds were sprinkled onto 12 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). Four trays were planted with seeds that had been chilled (stored in tap water at 4–10°C for one month before planting). Four trays were planted seeds that had been frozen then chilled (kept at 0°C for 25 days, then stored in tap water at 4–10°C for three days). The final four trays were planted with seeds that had not been soaked, chilled or frozen. All trays were placed in random positions in a greenhouse and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  4. Physically damage seeds of non-woody plants before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–1995 in a greenhouse in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that rubbing sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds with sandpaper had no significant effect on their germination rate. Germination rates did not significantly differ between seeds rubbed with sandpaper then soaked in water (44% germinated) and seeds only soaked in water only (44% germinated). For reference, the germination rate of seeds that were neither rubbed nor soaked was 55%. Methods: In September 1994, three-year-old sawgrass seeds were sprinkled onto 18 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). Six trays were planted with seeds rubbed with sandpaper for one minute then soaked in water for 24 h. Six trays were planted with seeds only soaked in water. Six trays were planted with untreated seeds (neither rubbed nor soaked). The trays were placed in random positions in a greenhouse and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  5. Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–1996 in greenhouses in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that soaking sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds in potassium nitrate either increased or had no significant effect on their germination rate. For 3-year-old seeds planted in 1994, seeds soaked in water then potassium nitrate had a higher germination rate (53%) than seeds soaked only in water (44%). For freshly-collected seeds planted in 1995, the germination rate did not significantly differ between seeds soaked in water then potassium nitrate (55%) and seeds soaked only in water (51%). For reference, seeds that were not soaked in potassium nitrate or water had a germination rate of 55–57%. Methods: Across September 1994 and 1995, sawgrass seeds were sprinkled onto 30 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). In 10 trays, the seeds had been soaked in water for 24 h then potassium nitrate for 24 h. In 10 trays, the seeds had been soaked in water only. The final 10 trays were planted with untreated seeds (left dry at room temperature). The trays were placed in random positions in greenhouses and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  6. Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1994–1996 in greenhouses in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that soaking sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds in nitric acid increased their germination rate. In two of two comparisons, germination rates were higher for seeds soaked in nitric acid then water (55–56%) than for seeds soaked in water only (44–51%). For reference, seeds that were not soaked in nitric acid or water had a germination rate of 55–57%. Methods: Across September 1994 and 1995, sawgrass seeds (either freshly collected or three years old) were sprinkled onto 30 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). Ten trays were planted with seeds soaked in nitric acid for 12 h then water for 24 h. Ten trays were planted with seeds soaked in water only. Ten trays were planted with untreated seeds (left dry at room temperature). The trays were placed in random positions in greenhouses and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  7. Treat seeds of non-woody plants with chemicals before sowing: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1995–1996 in a greenhouse in Florida, USA (Ponzio 1998) found that soaking sawgrass Cladium jamaicense seeds in bleach increased their germination rate. The germination rate was significantly higher for seeds that had been soaked in bleach (79% germinated) than for seeds that had only been soaked in water (51% germinated) or had been left dry at room temperature (57% germinated). Methods: In September 1995, freshly-collected sawgrass seeds were sprinkled onto 12 trays of sterilized soil (100 seeds/tray). In four trays, the seeds had been soaked in bleach (2–3% sodium hypochlorite) in a refrigerator for 72 h, then rinsed with tap water. In four trays, the seeds had been soaked in water at 25°C for 24 h. The final four trays were planted with unsoaked seeds. All trays were placed in random positions in a greenhouse and watered daily until no more germination occurred.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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