Compliance with wetland mitigation standards in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA

  • Published source details Kozich A.T. & Halvorsen K.E. (2012) Compliance with wetland mitigation standards in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Environmental Management, 50, 97-105.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Require mitigation of impacts to marshes or swamps

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Require mitigation of impacts to marshes or swamps

    A study in 2008 of 11 compensatory wetlands in Michigan, USA (Kozich & Halvorsen 2012) reported that only 45% were compliant with the permit requirement of <10% invasive plant cover. In the five compliant wetlands, invasive plant cover was 4–7%. In the six non-compliant wetlands, invasive plant cover was 11–26%. Compliance was greater in wetlands restored directly adjacent to existing wetlands (five of six compliant) than in wetlands created far from existing wetlands (zero of five compliant). Methods: Vegetation was surveyed in 11 compensatory wetlands in summer 2008. The wetlands had been restored or created 2–5 years previously, to compensate for impacts from road construction. All contained some emergent vegetation. Permits for impact were issued between 2003 and 2006, under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Part 303 of Michigan’s Natural Resources Environmental Protection Act.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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