Compensatory stream and wetland mitigation in North Carolina: an evaluation of regulatory success

  • Published source details Hill T., Kulz E., Munoz B. & Dorney J.R. (2013) Compensatory stream and wetland mitigation in North Carolina: an evaluation of regulatory success. Environmental Management, 51, 1077-1091.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Require mitigation of impacts to marshes or swamps

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Require mitigation of impacts to marshes or swamps

    A study in 2007–2009 of 205 wetland components within 82 development projects in North Carolina, USA (Hill et al. 2013) reported 64–74% compliance with success criteria outlined in permits. The study examined 205 individual wetland components: distinct areas of wetland, habitat or mitigation type (e.g. “4 ha of swamp restoration” and “10 ha of marsh preservation”). Of these, 70–74% met permit success criteria. In turn, 64–70% of the area of these wetland components met permit success criteria. The lower values are for all projects (mitigation by creation, restoration, enhancement or preservation); the higher values exclude preservation projects, which were more likely to meet success criteria. Methods: This study analyzed the success rate of 205 wetland components within 82 randomly selected development projects. These had been granted permits to impact wetlands between 1996 and 2006. Permits were issued under Section 401 of the Clean Water Act. Mitigation success was assessed through field surveys carried out between 2007 and 2009. Success was defined as compliance with vegetation, hydrological, soil and/or protection criteria outlined in each permit. Vegetation criteria usually involved a minimum abundance of emergent vegetation.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

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