Study

Everglades tree island restoration: testing a simple tree planting technique patterned after a natural process: Everglades tree island restoration

  • Published source details Dreschel T.W., Cline E.A. & Hill S.D. (2017) Everglades tree island restoration: testing a simple tree planting technique patterned after a natural process: Everglades tree island restoration. Restoration Ecology, 25, 696-704.

Actions

This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Add inorganic fertilizer before/after planting trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation

Directly plant trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

Action Link
Marsh and Swamp Conservation
  1. Add inorganic fertilizer before/after planting trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

    A replicated, paired, controlled study in 2013–2015 in an ephemeral freshwater marsh in Florida, USA (Dreschel et al. 2017) reported that adding fertilizer typically had no significant effect on tree sapling height or diameter. Three species were planted: pond apple Annona glabra, red maple Acer rubrum, and strangler fig Ficus aurea. After two years, the height of fertilized saplings did not significantly differ from unfertilized seedlings in six of six comparisons (fertilized: 97–151 cm; unfertilized: 80–127 cm). The same was true for sapling diameter in four of six comparisons (for which fertilized: 24–37 mm; unfertilized: 14–20 mm). In the other two comparisons, fertilized pond apple saplings were thicker (62–63 mm) than unfertilized saplings (45 mm). Saplings were 49–112 cm tall and 11–27 cm thick when planted. Methods: The study was testing methods to restore tree islands in marshy areas. In October 2013, fifteen nursery-reared saplings of each species were planted into peat bags (1 sapling/bag). The bags were punctured with multiple holes then floated on the marsh. Ten saplings/species were fertilized with Vigoro® Tree and Shrub fertilizer spikes (five saplings with one spike, five saplings with two spikes). Five saplings/species were not fertilized. The size of surviving seedlings was measured for up to two years after planting.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

  2. Directly plant trees/shrubs: freshwater wetlands

    A study in 2013–2015 in an ephemeral freshwater marsh in Florida, USA (Dreschel et al. 2017) reported that 89–100% of planted tree saplings survived over two years, and that survivors typically grew. Statistical significance was not assessed. Two years after planting in floating peat bags, survival rates were 89% for strangler fig Ficus aurea saplings, 97% for red maple Acer rubrum saplings and 100% for pond apple Annona glabra saplings. Average growth rates were positive in 27 of 28 reported cases (height: 0.2–1.4 mm/day; diameter: 0.01–0.06 mm/day; variation depending on species and planting method). In the other case, the average growth rate of red maple planted in unfertilized, upright peat bags was −0.01 mm/day. Methods: In October 2013, thirty-five nursery-reared saplings/species were planted into peat bags (punctured with multiple holes; 1–2 saplings/bag). Fertilizer or additional floatation aids were added to some bags. The planted bags were then floated on the marsh, flat or upright. All saplings were measured at planting. Survivors were recorded and measured for up to two years.

    (Summarised by: Nigel Taylor)

Output references
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