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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Influence of diversionary food on red squirrel population and damage to crop trees in young lodgepole pine forests

Published source details

Sullivan T.P. & Klenner W. (1993) Influence of diversionary food on red squirrel population and damage to crop trees in young lodgepole pine forests. Ecological Applications, 3, 708-718


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Provide diversionary feeding to reduce crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A controlled study in 1989–1990 of managed forest in British Columbia, Canada (Sullivan & Klenner 1993) found that diversionary feeding reduced damage by red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta crop trees. In each of three years, lodgepole pine blocks with diversionary feeding had a lower percentage of trees damaged by squirrels (average 5–11%) and fewer damage wounds (average 0.02–0.13 wounds/tree) than control blocks without diversionary feeding (average 26–61% of trees damaged; 0.5–2 wounds/tree). In May and June 1989, sunflower seeds were manually distributed in piles (45 kg/ha) within a 20-ha lodgepole pine block, and one 20-ha control block had no seeds. In 1990, two 15-ha blocks had seeds manually distributed in piles (22.7 kg/ha), two 20-ha blocks had seeds distributed by helicopter (22.7 kg/ha), and two 15-ha control blocks had no seeds. In 1991, seeds were distributed across three areas of 131–200 ha by helicopter (20 kg/ha), and three control areas had no seeds. Squirrel damage was recorded within 16–24 circular plots located every 50 or 100 m in a grid pattern within each treatment and control block or area in 1989, 1990 and 1991.

(Summarised by Anna Berthinussen)