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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Demographic analyses of a hunted black bear population with access to a refuge

Published source details

Powell R.A., Zimmerman J.W., Seaman D.E. & Gilliam J.F. (1996) Demographic analyses of a hunted black bear population with access to a refuge. Conservation Biology, 10, 224-234


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Legally protect habitat for mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A site comparison study in 1981–1990 in a mixed forest area in North Carolina, USA (Powell et al. 1996) found that there were more black bears Ursus americanus in a bear sanctuary than on adjacent non-sanctuary land. Bears were detected at a higher rate in the bear sanctuary (0.01–0.04 bear visits/station/day) than outside the sanctuary (0–0.01 bear visits/station/day). In 1981, a total of 136 bait stations (68 in the sanctuary and 68 on adjacent non-sanctuary land) were established. The two parts of the study area were approximately equal in size and, combined, covered >400 km2. In 1981–1990, at each station, two open cans of sardines were nailed to a tree. After five days, bait stations were revisited and any signs of bear visits noted. It was unclear how often the bait stations were baited each year.

(Summarised by Phil Martin)