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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Black bear exclusion fences to protect mobile apiaries

Published source details

Otto T.E. & Roloff G.J. (2015) Black bear exclusion fences to protect mobile apiaries. Human Wildlife Interactions, 9, 78-86


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install electric fencing to protect crops from mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A site comparison study in 2010 in a forested area in Michigan, USA (Otto & Roloff 2015) found that two of four electric fence designs successfully excluded black bears Ursus americanusi. Two of four electric fence designs excluded 100% of black bears from accessing bait within fenced enclosures during a total of 30–38 fence interactions. Bears breached the other two fence designs and accessed bait on three occasions during a total of 48–52 fence interactions. Each of four electric fence designs was tested at 2–3 baited sites within a 17-km2 forested area. The fences enclosed a 13-m2 area filled with 4–13 l of bait/day (including bread, cookies, trail mix, honey, bacon, sardines etc.). Fences were constructed with 2–3 rows of white polytape (1.3 cm) at different spacings (23–58 cm from the ground) and charged with 5,000 V (see original paper for details). Each site was baited for an average of three nights prior to fencing and was visited by bears during this time. Infrared cameras recorded bears interacting with the fences during 2–5 nights/site in June–August 2010.

(Summarised by Anna Berthinussen)