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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Wolf depredation trends and the use of fladry barriers to protect livestock in western North America

Published source details

Musiani M., Mamo C., Boitani L., Callaghan C., Gates C.C., Mattei L., Visalberghi E., Breck S. & Volpi G. (2003) Wolf depredation trends and the use of fladry barriers to protect livestock in western North America. Conservation Biology, 17, 1538-1547


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use flags to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, before-and-after study in 2001–2002 on two pastures in Alberta, Canada (Musiani et al. 2003) found that installing flags along fences (known as fladry) deterred wolves Canis lupus from entering pastures and predating livestock. Results were not tested for statistical significance. Before flags were installed, wolves approached pastures 2–7 times and predated livestock 2–5 times. With flags installed, wolves approached pastures 6–17 times but did not enter or predate livestock. After flags were removed, wolves approached twice and predated livestock 0–2 times. Plastic flags were placed at 50-cm intervals, suspended 50 cm above the ground on rope, 2 m out from the livestock fence. Two pastures (c.25 ha, 150 km apart) were studied. Each contained 100 cattle. Wolves were monitored by tracking signs in the snow, in winters of 2001 and 2002. Monitoring covered 60 days before flag installation, 60 days with flags installed and 60 days after flag removal.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)