Individual study: Implications of grizzly bear habituation to hikers
Jope K.J. (1985) Implications of grizzly bear habituation to hikers. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 13, 32-37
This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.
Use non-lethal methods to deter carnivores from attacking humans
A study in 1980–1981 in forest in a national park in Wyoming, USA (Jope 1985) found that hikers wearing bear bells were less likely to be approached or charged by grizzly bears Ursus arctos. Of initially motionless bears spotted ≤150 m from hikers, a higher proportion (67%) moved away from hikers with bells than from hikers without bells (26%). No bears charged at hikers with bells, whereas 14% of bears spotted by hikers without bells charged at the hikers. Hikers reported 97 observations of bears within 150 m. In 24% of encounters, hikers wore bells. Human-bear encounters in a 154-km2 study area were surveyed from 3 June–15 September 1980 and 14 June–22 September 1981. Bell-wearing rates were assessed during timed counts of hikers on trails, at 15-day intervals. Hikers were questioned about bear encounters.
(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)