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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Unmanned aerial vehicles mitigate human–elephant conflict on the borders of Tanzanian Parks: a case study

Published source details

Hahn N., Mwakatobe A., Konuche J., de Souza N., Keyyu J., Goss M., Chang'a A., Palminteri S., Dinerstein E. & Olson D. (2017) Unmanned aerial vehicles mitigate human–elephant conflict on the borders of Tanzanian Parks: a case study. Oryx, 51, 513-516


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use drones to deter crop damage by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated study in 2015–2016 in two savanna reserves in Tanzania (Hahn et al. 2017) found that using drones to deter crop damage led to African savanna elephants Loxodonta africana leaving sites within one minute on all occasions. On all 38 occasions when drones were deployed to intercept elephants, the animals began to flee within one minute. Elephants were typically herded to an area > 1 km from croplands. Before drone use, rangers were trained during three 4-day workshops. In February–March and May–August 2015, and in March–April 2016, rangers deployed drones in 38 situations when elephants were found close to croplands or villages. Each drone was fitted with a flashlight, to locate elephants at night and, during the day, a live video feed from a camera on the drone was used. Elephant responses were recorded over 60-second intervals, during the first 10 minutes of the drone flight.

(Summarised by Phil Martin)

Scare or otherwise deter mammals from human-occupied areas to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated study in 2016 in two savanna reserves in Tanzania (Hahn et al. 2017) found that using drones to deter African savanna elephants Loxodonta africana from towns led to elephants leaving the sites quickly. On all 13 occasions, when drones were deployed, elephants began to flee within one minute. Elephants were typically herded to an area > 1 km from villages. Before using drones, rangers were trained during three 4-day workshops. In February–March and May–August 2015 and in March–April 2016, rangers deployed drones in 13 situations when elephants were found close to villages. Each drone was fitted with a flashlight, to locate elephants at night, and, during the day, a live video feed from a camera on the drone was used. Elephant responses were recorded over 60-second intervals for the first 10 minutes of the drone flight.

(Summarised by Phil Martin)