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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Preventing crop raiding by the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in Guinea-Bissau

Published source details

González L.M., Montoto F.G., Mereck T., Alves J., Pereira J., de Larrinoa P.F., Maroto A., Bolonio L. & El Kadhir N. (2017) Preventing crop raiding by the vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in Guinea-Bissau. Oryx, 51, 222-229


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Install electric fencing to protect crops from mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 2008–2012 of 100 rice fields in the Bijagos archipelago and Oio and Gabau regions, Guinea Bissau (González et al. 2017) found that electric fences deterred hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius entry into fields. The proportion of fenced fields where hippopotamuses were detected (1.3%) was lower that of unfenced fields (80.0%). Hippopotamuses were monitored in 100 rice fields in 2008–2011 in Orango Islands National Park and Uno Island and, in 2012–2013, in Cacheu National Park. Seventy-five rice fields had electric fences and 25 were unfenced. Fences were 80 cm high, were made out of 2.5-mm-diameter aluminium wire, connected to an energizer unit. Fences also comprised rope between wooden stakes, with strips of red and white striped plastic at 1-m intervals. Vegetation was cut from within 2–3 m around the wires twice each week. Fenced and unfenced fields were surveyed every 3–4 days for hippopotamus footprints.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)