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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Evaluation of an aversive conditioning technique used on female grizzly bears in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

Published source details

Gillin C.M., Hammond F.M. & Peterson C.M. (1994) Evaluation of an aversive conditioning technique used on female grizzly bears in the Yellowstone Ecosystem. Bears: Their Biology and Management, 9, 503-512


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use non-lethal methods to deter carnivores from attacking humans Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1986–1989 at seven sites in two national parks dominated by temperate forest in Wyoming, USA (Gillin et al. 1994) found that using rubber bullets to scare problem grizzly bears Ursus arctos caused all bears to flee from study sites, at least for short period. Five bears were shot at using rubber bullets, 41 times in total, with 27 hits recorded and bears fled each time. Bears were generally deterred from returning to the study area for 2–4 weeks. However, two bears continued to exhibit nuisance behaviour and repeatedly exploited sources of human food. Rubber bullets were fired at bears that had been seeking human food or foraging close to habitation. Behaviour of each bear was noted before and after firing of bullets, as well as whether the bear fled from an area with a radius of approximately 100 m.

(Summarised by Phil Martin)