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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Testing fladry as a nonlethal management tool for wolves and coyotes in Michigan

Published source details

Davidson-Nelson S.J. & Gehring T.M. (2010) Testing fladry as a nonlethal management tool for wolves and coyotes in Michigan. Human Wildlife Interactions, 4, 87-94


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use flags to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2004–2005 in eight pasture and forest sites in Michigan, USA (Davidson-Nelson & Gehring 2010) found that tying coloured flags to a fence (known as fladry) reduced visits to pastures by gray wolves Canis lupus but not by coyotes Canis latrans. Fewer wolves were found in pastures where flags were used (0.3 visits/day) than outside pastures at the same sites (1.4 visits/day). There was no significant difference in wolf visitation rates where flags were not used (inside pasture: 0.7 visits/day; outside pasture: 0.3 visits/day). With flags, there was no significant difference in frequency of coyote visits in pastures (0.4 visits/day) and outside pastures at the same site (0.7 visits/day), and the same was true when flags were not used (inside pasture: 0 visits/day; outside pasture: 0.3 visits/day). In May 2004, red nylon flags were attached to fences at four randomly selected farms. At four other farms, no flags were used. One bait station, containing sand with sheep or cattle faeces, was placed inside each pasture and one outside each pasture fence. In May–August 2004 and 2005, each bait station was checked for wolf and coyote tracks.

(Summarised by Kailen Malloy )