Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Bold, shy, and persistent: Variable coyote response to light and sound stimuli

Published source details

Darrow P.A. & Shivik J.A. (2009) Bold, shy, and persistent: Variable coyote response to light and sound stimuli. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 116, 82-87


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use lights and sound to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, randomized study in 2005 in a captive facility in Utah, USA (Darrow & Shivik 2009) found that combined light and sound or using light alone deterred coyotes Canis latrans from eating bait more than did sound alone. Fewer coyotes consumed bait with both light and sound deterrents used (none, from five pairs) or with light alone used (one coyote from five pairs) than with sound alone used (four coyotes from five pairs). Fifteen captive coyote pairs were housed separately in 0.1-ha outdoor pens, each with a frightening device. Devices produced noise (100 dB at 2 m), strobe light (400 cd) or noise and light combined, when motion was detected ≤2 m away. Stimuli lasted 20 s. Five coyote pairs were randomly assigned to each of the three treatments. Pork bait was placed 1 m from the frightening device. For eight days’ acclimation, devices were inactive. Then one trial, lasting 1.5 h, was run each evening, over 10 evenings. Trials were conducted from 17 July to 31 August 2005.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)