Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus)

Published source details

Lance N.J., Breck S.W., Sime C., Callahan P. & Shivik J.A. (2010) Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves (Canis lupus). Wildlife Research, 37, 708-714


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use flags to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 2007 at 12 pasture sites in Montana, USA (Lance et al. 2010) found that wolves Canis lupus did not visit sites with flags hanging from an electrified fence. The result was not tested for statistical significance. Relative effects of flags and electric fences cannot be separated in this study. Grey wolves Canis lupus did not visit any pastures with flags on electrified fences but twice visited pastures with conventional barbed wire fences. However, no livestock were killed by wolves in the pastures. The study was conducted in 12 pastures (16–122 ha), each with 40–200 cows. Pastures were contained within barbed wire fences. Six pastures (randomly selected) had electrified fences with red flags (50 × 10 cm) suspended from them, positioned outside existing fences and six did not. Wolf tracks were monitored twice weekly, for three months, in 2007.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)

Install electric fencing to reduce predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A randomized, replicated, controlled, before-and-after study in 2006 in a captive centre in Minnesota, USA and a replicated, controlled study in 2007 at 12 pastures in Montana, USA (Lance et al. 2010) found that electric fences with flags attached delayed grey wolf Canis lupus and red wolf Canis rufus entry. In the captive study, grey wolves and red wolves took longer (10 days) to cross electric fences with flags than non-electric fences with flags (1 day) or unfenced areas (<5 minutes). In the pasture study, wolves never entered pastures with electric fences and flags but twice entered pastures without electric fences and flags. The captive study ran for two weeks, using 45 wolves in 15 packs. Each pack (1–7 animals) was housed in a 105–925-m2 enclosure. Five packs were offered food (white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus) positioned within an 18-m2 electric fence (2,000 V) enclosure with red plastic flags (50 × 10 cm, 50 cm apart), five packs were offered food inside a non-electric fence with flags and five packs were offered food that was not protected by a fence or flags. Animals were monitored 24 hours/day with infra-red cameras. The pasture study was conducted in 12 cattle-grazed pastures (each 16–122 ha) enclosed with conventional barbed wire fences. Six pastures were further protected with electric fences with flags and six were not. Wolf tracks were monitored twice each week for three months.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)