Predator-resembling aversive conditioning for managing habituated wildlife

  • Published source details Kloppers E.L., St Clair C. & Hurd T.E. (2005) Predator-resembling aversive conditioning for managing habituated wildlife. Ecology and Society, 10, 31.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Scare or otherwise deter mammals from human-occupied areas to reduce human-wildlife conflict

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Scare or otherwise deter mammals from human-occupied areas to reduce human-wildlife conflict

    A controlled study in 2001–2002 at a town and surrounding forest in Alberta, Canada (Kloppers et al. 2005) found that after being chased by humans, the average distance of elk Cervus canadensis from the town increased more than it did for elk chased by dogs Canis lupus familiaris or for elk that were not chased. The average distance of elk from the town boundary increased for all treatment groups but the increase was larger for elk chased by humans (after: 1,130 m; before: 184 m) than for elk chased by dogs (after: 1,041 m; before: 535 m) or for elk that were not chased (after: 881 m; before: 629 m). Twenty-four elk were radio-collared. Each was assigned to being chased by humans, chased by dogs or not chased, 10 times, from November 2001 to March 2002. Chases lasted 15 minutes and covered averages of 1,148 m when humans (shooting starter pistols) chased elk and 1,219 m when two border collie dogs chased elk. Non-chased elk moved an average of 49 m during 15 minutes. Capture and collar-fitting may have produced some aversive response though animal handling was uniform across groups. Displacement from the town boundary was calculated from daily sightings or radio-signals, from September 2001 to March 2002.

    (Summarised by: Nick Littlewood)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 20

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered speciesVincet Wildlife Trust