Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Predator-resembling aversive conditioning for managing habituated wildlife

Published source details

Kloppers E.L., St Clair C. & Hurd T.E. (2005) Predator-resembling aversive conditioning for managing habituated wildlife. Ecology and Society, 10, 31


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Scare or otherwise deter mammals from human-occupied areas to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A controlled study in 2001–2002 at a town and surrounding forest in Alberta, Canada (Kloppers et al. 2005) found that after being chased by humans, the average distance of elk Cervus canadensis from the town increased more than it did for elk chased by dogs Canis lupus familiaris or for elk that were not chased. The average distance of elk from the town boundary increased for all treatment groups but the increase was larger for elk chased by humans (after: 1,130 m; before: 184 m) than for elk chased by dogs (after: 1,041 m; before: 535 m) or for elk that were not chased (after: 881 m; before: 629 m). Twenty-four elk were radio-collared. Each was assigned to being chased by humans, chased by dogs or not chased, 10 times, from November 2001 to March 2002. Chases lasted 15 minutes and covered averages of 1,148 m when humans (shooting starter pistols) chased elk and 1,219 m when two border collie dogs chased elk. Non-chased elk moved an average of 49 m during 15 minutes. Capture and collar-fitting may have produced some aversive response though animal handling was uniform across groups. Displacement from the town boundary was calculated from daily sightings or radio-signals, from September 2001 to March 2002.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)