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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effectiveness of low-cost deterrents in decreasing livestock predation by felids: a case in Central Mexico

Published source details

Zarco-González M.M. & Monroy-Vilchis O. (2014) Effectiveness of low-cost deterrents in decreasing livestock predation by felids: a case in Central Mexico. Animal Conservation, 17, 371-378


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use visual deterrents (e.g. scarecrows) to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 2010 of six farms in a forested area in central Mexico (Zarco-González & Monroy-Vilchis 2014) found that visual and sound deterrents reduced predation of livestock on ranches. The relative effects of the two deterrent types were not assessed individually. No large predators (puma Puma concolor or jaguar Panthera onca) were detected on ranches that used deterrents compared with 2 detections/ranch and 2–4 livestock attacks/ranch where deterrents were not used. Out of six ranches (44–195 ha extent, ≥6 km apart), two cattle ranches and two goat ranches deployed deterrents whilst no deterrents were deployed on one cattle ranch and one goat ranch. Visual deterrents were shirts worn by livestock owners, hung around paddocks. Sound deterrents were recordings of voices, motors, pyrotechnics, barking dogs and bells, played twice daily for 40 min, between 06:00–08:00 and 20:00–22:00 h. Deterrents alternated weekly between visual and sound, through July–August 2010. Large predators were monitored using two camera traps/ranch and by searching for tracks and other signs.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)

Use loud noises to deter predation of livestock by mammals to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, controlled study in 2010 of six farms in a forested area in central Mexico (Zarco-González & Monroy-Vilchis 2014) found that sound and visual deterrents reduced predation of livestock on ranches. The relative effects of the two deterrent types were not assessed individually. No large predators (puma Puma concolor or jaguar Panthera onca) were detected on ranches that used deterrents compared with 2 detections/ranch and 2–4 livestock attacks/ranch where deterrents were not used. Out of six ranches (44–195 ha extent, ≥6 km apart), two cattle ranches and two goat ranches deployed deterrents, whilst no deterrents were deployed on one cattle ranch and one goat ranch. Sound deterrents were recordings of voices, motors, pyrotechnics, barking dogs and bells, played twice daily for 40 minutes, between 06:00–08:00 and 20:00–22:00 h. Visual deterrents were shirts worn by livestock owners, hung around paddocks. Deterrents alternated weekly between sound and visual, through July–August 2010. Large predators were monitored using two camera traps/ranch and by searching for tracks and other signs.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)