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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Published source details

Yarkovich J., Clark J.D. & Murrow J.L. (2011) Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 75, 1145-1154


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Release translocated/captive-bred mammals in areas with invasive/problematic species eradication/control Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A before-and-after study in 2006–2008 in a temperate forest area in Tennessee and North Carolina, USA (Yarkovich et al. 2011) found following the onset of translocations of black bears Ursus americanus away from an elk Cervus canadensis calving site, survival of the offspring of translocated elk increased. A higher proportion of elk calves survived their first year during bear translocations (69%) than before (59%). In 2001–2002, fifty-two elk were translocated to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Calf survival was monitored in 2001–2006 in a previous study that indicated that black bears predated nine out of 13 elk calves killed by predators. In 2006–2008, forty-nine black bears were relocated >40 km away from the elk calving area. In 2006–2008, forty-nine elk births were documented from which 42 recently-born calves were radio-collared. Calf survival was monitored by radio-tracking and visual observation.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)