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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Cultivated cereal grains as supplemental forages for mule deer in the Texas Panhandle

Published source details

Wiggers E.P., Wilcox D.D. & Bryant F.C. (1984) Cultivated cereal grains as supplemental forages for mule deer in the Texas Panhandle. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 12, 240-245


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Plant crops to provide supplementary food for mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated, randomized, controlled study in 1979–1980 in a crop field in Texas, USA (Wiggers et al. 1984) found that on triticale (a cross between wheat and rye), overwintering mule deer Odocoileus hemionus abundance and crop consumption were higher than on barley, annual ryegrass, winter wheat or rye. The preference index (values >1 indicate selection for that grass and values <1 indicate avoidance) for the quantity of triticale removed by deer (1.37) was higher than for barley (0.90), annual ryegrass (0.99), wheat (0.87) and rye (0.66). Average deer abundance was also higher on triticale (12.8 deer/plot) compared to barley (7.0), annual ryegrass (10.1), wheat (5.8) and rye (9.0). In August 1979, five crop types were planted in five replicate blocks (four plots in each block were 0.125 ha, one was 0.063 ha). Grass species were randomly assigned to plots. Grass production and forage removal by deer were estimated monthly from November 1979 to March 1980 using paired caged and uncaged quadrats. Deer abundance was assessed by time lapse photography.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)