Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Elk, mule deer, and cattle habitats in central Arizona

Published source details

Wallace M.C. & Krausman P.R. (1987) Elk, mule deer, and cattle habitats in central Arizona. Journal of Range Management, 40, 80-83


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Reduce intensity of grazing by domestic livestock Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A controlled, before-and-after study in 1981–1982 in a forest and meadow mosaic in Arizona, USA (Wallace & Krausman 1987) found that an absence of cattle grazing was associated with higher numbers of elk Cervus canadensis and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus. There were 0.13 elk/km counted on transects in absence of cattle grazing and 0.01/km after grazing commenced whereas, concurrently, on a continually ungrazed pasture, 0.21 and 0.50 elk/km respectively were counted. The number of mule deer counted on transects fell from 0.07/km in absence of grazing to 0.00/km after grazing commenced whereas 0.02 mule deer/km were counted on a continually ungrazed pasture during both time periods. The 135 km2-study area was divided into two pastures. One was ungrazed in both years. The other was ungrazed in 1981 and stocked with cattle, at a rate of one animal unit (equivalent to a cow and suckling calf)/3 ha in May–July 1982. Elk and mule deer were counted in July and August, along a 48-km driving transect, 20 times in 1981 and 14 times in 1982.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)