Elk, mule deer, and cattle habitats in central Arizona

  • Published source details Wallace M.C. & Krausman P.R. (1987) Elk, mule deer, and cattle habitats in central Arizona. Journal of Range Management, 40, 80-83.


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Reduce intensity of grazing by domestic livestock

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Reduce intensity of grazing by domestic livestock

    A controlled, before-and-after study in 1981–1982 in a forest and meadow mosaic in Arizona, USA (Wallace & Krausman 1987) found that an absence of cattle grazing was associated with higher numbers of elk Cervus canadensis and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus. There were 0.13 elk/km counted on transects in absence of cattle grazing and 0.01/km after grazing commenced whereas, concurrently, on a continually ungrazed pasture, 0.21 and 0.50 elk/km respectively were counted. The number of mule deer counted on transects fell from 0.07/km in absence of grazing to 0.00/km after grazing commenced whereas 0.02 mule deer/km were counted on a continually ungrazed pasture during both time periods. The 135 km2-study area was divided into two pastures. One was ungrazed in both years. The other was ungrazed in 1981 and stocked with cattle, at a rate of one animal unit (equivalent to a cow and suckling calf)/3 ha in May–July 1982. Elk and mule deer were counted in July and August, along a 48-km driving transect, 20 times in 1981 and 14 times in 1982.

    (Summarised by: Nick Littlewood)

Output references
What Works 2021 cover

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 21

Go to the CE Journal

Discover more on our blog

Our blog contains the latest news and updates from the Conservation Evidence team, the Conservation Evidence Journal, and our global partners in evidence-based conservation.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape ProgrammeRed List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Mauritian Wildlife Supporting Conservation Leaders
Sustainability Dashboard National Biodiversity Network Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Bat Conservation InternationalPeople trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust