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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Livestock depredation and mitigation methods practised by resident and nomadic pastoralists around Waza National Park, Cameroon

Published source details

Tumenta P.N., de Iongh H.H., Funston P.J. & Udo de Haes H.A. (2013) Livestock depredation and mitigation methods practised by resident and nomadic pastoralists around Waza National Park, Cameroon. Oryx, 47, 237-242


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Deter predation of livestock by herding livestock using adults instead of children to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A site comparison study in 2008 of savanna around a national park in Cameroon (Tumenta et al. 2013) found that using adults to herd livestock reduced losses through predation relative to livestock herded by children. Among resident pastoralist households, fewer livestock were lost to carnivores when the livestock were herded by adults (two animals/year) than by children (eight animals/year). Among nomadic pastoralist households, there were also fewer livestock lost to carnivores when herded by adults (five animals/year) than by children (16 animals/year). Among resident pastoralists that herded livestock, 42% of herders (60 herders) were adults. Among nomadic pastoralists that herded livestock, 72% (124 herders) were adults. Two hundred and seven resident pastoralists and 174 nomadic pastoralists were interviewed. Pastoralists reported the incidence of predation of livestock by large carnivores and details of animal husbandry techniques used. Villages studied were selected based on tracked movements of radio-collared lions.

(Summarised by Kayla Seltzer)

Exclude wild mammals using ditches, moats, walls or other barricades to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A site comparison study in 2008 of savanna around a national park in Cameroon (Tumenta et al. 2013) found that barricading livestock inside enclosures overnight reduced losses through predation by lions Panthera leo. Households owning enclosures lost an average of one animal/year to lion predation compared to two animals/year for households not owning enclosures. Owning enclosures did not reduce overall numbers of livestock predated by all mammalian predators (lions, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta and jackals Canis aureus) (with enclosure: 4 animals predated/year; without enclosure: 5). However, fewer animals were lost by households that owned solid enclosures (2 animals/year) than those that owned enclosures made of thorny bushes (7 animals/year). In total, 207 resident pastoralists were interviewed for this study. Pastoralists reported the incidence of predation on livestock by large carnivores as well as whether their livestock were confined in enclosures at night. Villages were selected based on the tracking of movements of radio-collared lions.

(Summarised by Kayla Seltzer )

Use guardian animals (e.g. dogs, llamas, donkeys) bonded to livestock to deter predators to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A site comparison study in 2008 of savanna around a national park in Cameroon (Tumenta et al. 2013) found that using dogs Canis lupus familiaris to guard livestock reduced losses through predation among nomadic pastoralists but not among resident pastoralists. Among nomadic pastoralists that owned dogs (53% of all nomadic pastoralists), fewer livestock were lost to carnivores (six animals/year) than among those that did not own dogs (10 animals/year). Among resident pastoralists that owned dogs (33% of all resident pastoralists), there was no significant difference in the number lost to predators (five animals/year) compared to those that did not own dogs (four animals/year). Two hundred and seven resident pastoralists and 174 nomadic pastoralists were interviewed. Subjects reported the incidence of predation on livestock by large carnivores and details of animal husbandry techniques used. Villages were selected based on the tracking of movements of radio-collared lions.

(Summarised by Kayla Seltzer )