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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

Published source details

Smith K.G. & Clark J.D. (1994) Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation. Journal of Mammalogy, 75, 309-320


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Translocate to re-establish or boost populations in native range Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1985–1993 of forest across two mountain areas in Arkansas, USA (Smith & Clark 1994) found that a translocated population of black bears Ursus americanus grew steadily after animals were released. Following release of an estimated 254 bears, the population grew to >2,500 bears 20 years later. Litter sizes in two study areas were 1.6–2.4 and survival to one year was 40–65%. Black bears were extirpated from Arkansas sometime after 1931, apart from a small isolated population. Approximately 254 bears were released in 1958–1968 into three main areas from which bears had been lost. Released animals were wild-caught in Minnesota and in Manitoba, Canada. Bear densities were estimated in two study areas by mark-recapture at bait stations in 1985–1990. Litter sizes were estimated from bears radio-collared in 1988–1990 and monitored through to 1993.

(Summarised by Emily Hardgrove)