Effect of habitat structure and type of farming on European hare (Lepus europaeus) abundance

  • Published source details Santilli F. & Galardi L. (2016) Effect of habitat structure and type of farming on European hare (Lepus europaeus) abundance. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy, 27, 1-3


This study is summarised as evidence for the following.

Action Category

Reduce pesticide or fertilizer use

Action Link
Terrestrial Mammal Conservation
  1. Reduce pesticide or fertilizer use

    A replicated, site comparison study in 2011 on 26 mainly arable farms in Tuscany, Italy (Santilli & Galardi 2016) found that reducing pesticide, herbicide or fertilizer use, by farming organically, did not increase abundances of European hares Lepus europaeus. The density of hares on organic farms (14 hares/km2) was lower than on conventional farms (24 hares/km2). Higher hare density appeared, instead, to be more strongly positively related to increased habitat diversity, including crop diversity. Half of the 26 study farms, average size 6.1 km2, were organic and half were non-organic farms. Organic farms complied with European Union organic farming requirements. Hare density was estimated using spotlight counts from a car, two or three times at each farm, in early March 2011.

Output references

What Works in Conservation

What Works in Conservation provides expert assessments of the effectiveness of actions, based on summarised evidence, in synopses. Subjects covered so far include amphibians, birds, terrestrial mammals, forests, peatland and control of freshwater invasive species. More are in progress.

More about What Works in Conservation

Download free PDF or purchase
The Conservation Evidence Journal

The Conservation Evidence Journal

An online, free to publish in, open-access journal publishing results from research and projects that test the effectiveness of conservation actions.

Read the latest volume: Volume 17

Go to the CE Journal

Subscribe to our newsletter

Please add your details if you are interested in receiving updates from the Conservation Evidence team about new papers, synopses and opportunities.

Who uses Conservation Evidence?

Meet some of the evidence champions

Endangered Landscape Programme Red List Champion - Arc Kent Wildlife Trust The Rufford Foundation Save the Frogs - Ghana Bern wood Supporting Conservation Leaders National Biodiversity Network Sustainability Dashboard Frog Life The international journey of Conservation - Oryx British trust for ornithology Cool Farm Alliance UNEP AWFA Butterfly Conservation People trust for endangered species Vincet Wildlife Trust