Conservation Evidence strives to be as useful to conservationists as possible. Please take our survey to help the team improve our resource.

Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Artificial establishment of a ground squirrel colony

Published source details

Salmon T.P. & Marsh R.E. (1981) Artificial establishment of a ground squirrel colony. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 45, 1016-1018


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Use holding pens at release site prior to release of translocated mammals Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A study in 1976–1978 in a pasture in California, USA (Salmon & Marsh 1981) found that following release from holding pens at the release site, translocated California ground squirrels Spermophilus beechey established a reproductive colony. Reproduction occurred within one of the holding cages, but the number of young was not determined. At least three of the eight ground squirrels released from cages were still alive 8–13 months after release. Four wire-mesh cages (1.2 × 2.4 × 0.6 m high) were part-filled with soil, to 41 cm depth, in a 7.5-ha pasture. Cages each had four pipes (20 cm long, 10 cm diameter) leading down into the soil, as refuges. Cages were positioned in two adjacent pairs. Pairs were 46 m apart. In November 1976, one pair of wild-caught California ground squirrels was released into each cage. Squirrels were allowed to exit from two of the cages in March 1977 and from the other two in June 1977. In February–April 1978, tagged and non-tagged squirrels were observed and/or live-trapped near the cages.

(Summarised by Ricardo Rocha)