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Providing evidence to improve practice

Individual study: Shock collars as a site-aversive conditioning tool for wolves

Published source details

Rossler S.T., Gehring T.M., Schultz R.N., Rossler M.T., Wydeven A.P. & Hawley J.E. (2012) Shock collars as a site-aversive conditioning tool for wolves. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 36, 176-184


This study is summarised as evidence for the intervention(s) shown on the right. The icon shows which synopsis it is relevant to.

Deter predation of livestock by using shock/electronic dog-training collars to reduce human-wildlife conflict Terrestrial Mammal Conservation

A replicated study in 2005–2006 in a mostly forested area of Wisconsin, USA (Rossler et al. 2012) found that electric shock collars reduced visits by gray wolves Canis lupus to baited zones. Shock-collared wolves spent less time in shock zones when collars were active than did wolves without shock collars (with shock collar: 1 min/day in baited zone; no shock collar: 14 min/day). The pattern continued post-treatment when collars were not activated (shock collar: 1 min/day; no shock collar: 21 min/day). Fourteen adult wolves (one in each pack) were caught. Ten had a radio collar and shock unit fitted. Four had a radio collar only fitted. Each pack was baited with a dead deer every three days. The shock zone was a 70-m radius from the bait. Shock collars were automatically activated within this zone during a 40-day shock period. Bait placement and monitoring continued for a further 40-day non-shock period. Radio data loggers recorded wolf visits to bait sites between May and September of 2005 and 2006.

(Summarised by Nick Littlewood)